Research Methodology for Beginners aka The Research Process (A-Z) (Part One)
Saturday 2nd February 2013
S. Akinmayọwa Lawal
Indigo Postgraduate Researcher and Doctoral Candidate Centre for Global Health, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland. Email: email@example.com
Outline of Presentation (1)
• • • • • • • • • What is Research? The Research Spectrum (Types of Research) Differences in Research Spectrum Approaches in Research Methodology Modes of Conducting Research Choosing a Research Topic? What is a Research Problem? Sources of the Research Problem Why the research Problem before the Objective
Outline of Presentation (2)
• • • • • • • • • Selecting an Objective of the Study Research Question Significance of the Study Scope of the Study Research Hypotheses Types of hypotheses Research Assumptions Clarifying Concepts (Definition of Terms) International Research Agencies
What is Research?
Research is an endeavour to study or obtain knowledge through the use of a systematic approach with the intent of clarification.
Research is a systematic investigation designed to develop or contribute to knowledge (Olayinka, Taiwo, Raji-Oyelade and Farai, 2006).
Research is a systematic thinking strategy which involves a planned and formalised collection, analysis and interpretation of data for problem solving.
The research process is a formalised procedure which includes: • • • • Identifying and defining the problem Reviewing existing literature Formulating appropriate research questions and hypothesis Collecting relevant data to answer the research questions or test the hypotheses • Analysing the data to answer the research question or to test the hypotheses • Drawing necessary inference or conclusion based on the outcome of the analysis
The Research Spectrum (Types of Research)
Basic Research • This encompasses theoretical, experimental or practical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge without a specific application in view.
Applied Research This refers to an original work undertaken to acquire new knowledge with a specific practical application in view.
Experimental Research This is work undertaken for the purpose of achieving technological advancement for the purpose of creating new, or improving existing materials, devices, products or processes.
Differences in Research Spectrum
• Experimental: the objective is the achievement of technological advancement • Basic and applied: the objective is the advancement of scientific knowledge
Approaches in Research Methodology
This presents a picture of the specific details of a situation, social setting or relationship, and much of social research found in scholarly journals or used for policy decisions is descriptive (Neuman, 1994). Descriptive studies are designed to portray accurately the characteristics of a particular situation, community or group; they also reveal the frequency with which an event occurs or with which it is associated with other events.
This are studies designed to explore a new topic or issue, to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it, often in order to formulate a more precise research problem or to develop hypotheses (Stellitz et al, 1976).
An exploratory research may be the first stage in a sequence of studies ; it may be conducted in order to know enough to design and execute a second, more systematic and extensive study.
This is designed to know why things are the way they are, or to explain situations or social phenomena. It builds on exploratory and descriptive research and goes on to identify the reason why something occurs.
Goals of Descriptive, Exploratory, and Explanatory Research Descriptive Research
• Provide an accurate profile of a group • Describe a process, mechanism or relationship
• Become familiar with the basic facts, people and concerns involved...
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