This essay have discussed about the main methodological approaches and the definition and explanation of the main philosophical terms, as well as mentioned about which philosophical approach will be use in the research project for next year.
‘A theory concerning the nature of social phenomena as entities that are to be admitted to a know ledge system’ (Saunders, 2007: 605).
The word ‘ontology’ seems to generate a lot of controversy. It has a long history in philosophy, in which it refers to the subject of existence. It is also often confused with epistemology, which is about knowledge and knowing.
Ontology is one of core areas of philosophical study, which research as the nature of being, reality and existence, it also discuss about the relationship between each categories of being.
‘An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.’(Gruber, 1993: 199).
‘Objectivism is an ontological position that asserts that social phenomena and their meanings have an existence that is independent of social actors. It implies that social phenomena and the categories that we use in every day discourse have an existence that is independent or separate from actors’ (Bryman, 2007: 22).
Objectivism is a philosophical terminology that refers to an attitude of people to look at things, to think about things without particular point of person, means the properties of the thing itself without personal views. Further, objectivism also means the existence of natural and social properties of things (Saunders, 2007; Bryman, 2007).
‘An ontological position that asserts, that entities are created from the perceptions and consequent actions of those social actors responsible for their creation’ (Saunders, 2007: 612).
According to Saunders (2007), subjectivism is the consciousness and spirit of people, it is opposed to objectivism. Subjectivism means that...