This essay have discussed about the main methodological approaches and the definition and explanation of the main philosophical terms, as well as mentioned about which philosophical approach will be use in the research project for next year.
‘A theory concerning the nature of social phenomena as entities that are to be admitted to a know ledge system’ (Saunders, 2007: 605).
The word ‘ontology’ seems to generate a lot of controversy. It has a long history in philosophy, in which it refers to the subject of existence. It is also often confused with epistemology, which is about knowledge and knowing.
Ontology is one of core areas of philosophical study, which research as the nature of being, reality and existence, it also discuss about the relationship between each categories of being.
‘An ontology is a specification of a conceptualization.’(Gruber, 1993: 199).
‘Objectivism is an ontological position that asserts that social phenomena and their meanings have an existence that is independent of social actors. It implies that social phenomena and the categories that we use in every day discourse have an existence that is independent or separate from actors’ (Bryman, 2007: 22).
Objectivism is a philosophical terminology that refers to an attitude of people to look at things, to think about things without particular point of person, means the properties of the thing itself without personal views. Further, objectivism also means the existence of natural and social properties of things (Saunders, 2007; Bryman, 2007).
‘An ontological position that asserts, that entities are created from the perceptions and consequent actions of those social actors responsible for their creation’ (Saunders, 2007: 612).
According to Saunders (2007), subjectivism is the consciousness and spirit of people, it is opposed to objectivism. Subjectivism means that people participate in to observe some things, at this time, the nature and social properties and rule of the observed things will vary with different views from different people.
‘The epistemological position that advocates working with an observable social reality. The emphasis is on highly structured methodology to facilitate replication, and the end product can be law-like generalizations similar to those produced by the physical and natural scientists’ (Saunders, 2007: 606).
According to Saunders (2007), positivism is an ontological position, one or the main determinants in research questions research philosophy. Positivism is attribute with the naturel sciences. It reflects scientific laws by summarize the phenomenon.
‘The epistemological position that advocates the necessity to understand differences between humans in their role as social actors’ (Saunders, 2007: 600).
Interpretivism is a philosophical viewpoint formed from human scientific process, mainly common in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Interpretivism is based on idealism, it advocates that human experience of the world is not the passive perception and acceptance on the material world, but takes an initiative to the increase understanding and interpretation. The interpretivist ontological basis of the real world is the human explanation for the different behaviour and condition of the product. In other words it attempts to understand the truth of the real world, which is built the subjective idea of humanity (Schwandt, 1994).
‘Take a quantitative approach to addressing their research questions and design a study that involves collecting quantitative data and analyzing them using statistical methods’ (Collis, 2009: 7).
According to Bryman (2007), the quantitative approach is a research strategy or process that emphasizes quantification in the collection, analysis and explanation of data. It uses questionnaires to achieve the...