Research Manual

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RESEARCH MANUAL

INTRODUCTION

Research is an ORGANISED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS to QUESTIONS.

SYSTEMATIC because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which you follow. There are certain things in the research process, which are always done in order to get the most accurate results. ORAGNISED in that there is a structure or a method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope. FINDING ANSWERS is the end of all research. Whether it is the answer to a hypotheses or even a simple question, research is successful when we find answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but is still an answer. QUESTIONS are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive or purpose. So Research simply means a search for facts – answer to questions and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation.

• Descriptive-To discover facts or describe reality.
• Explanatory-To determine why and how something occurred. • Prediction-To make projections about what may occur in the future. • Evaluation-To assess the worth of something
• Needs Assessment-To assess the need for services
• Social work research is the application of research methods to the production of knowledge that social workers need to solve problems they confront in the practice of social work.

• Evaluate the effectiveness of intervention techniques. • Comparison of alternative intervention techniques.
• Innovate Interventions.
• Modification of programme.

Social Sciences are mainly divided into natural sciences and social science. Social sciences include various disciplines dealing with human life, human behaviour, social groups and social institutions. Social sciences research is a systematic method of exploring, analyzing and conceptualizing human life in order to extend, correct or verify knowledge of human behaviour and social life. It is mainly with the objective of discovering new facts or verifies and test old facts, understands the human behavior and its interaction with the government and social institutions and to find out casual connection between human activities and natural laws governing them.

STEPS IN RESEARCH

The task of research is a sequential process involving a number of clearly delineated steps. A general Model of a Research Process is shown below and the detailed description of each o the steps are followed further. A research process consist of the following steps:

1. Identification and Selection of a Research Problem
2. Review of Literature: Preliminary review prior to problem selection; Systematic review prior to problem selection; Systematic review after selection; Notes taking. 3. Formulation of the selected problem: definition of the problem; conceptual mode, delimitation of the study, formulation of the objectives of the study and the hypotheses/investigating questions. 4. Operationalisation of Concepts: Definition of concepts, construction of indexes/scales for measuring variables. 5. Preparation of the research plan; Statement of the problem, objectives of the study, hypotheses, operational definition of the concepts, Geographical area of the study, methodology (type of research and methods of collection of data), sampling design, tools for collection of data, plan of analysis, overview of the research report, time-schedule. 6. Construction of tools of data Collection

7. Collection of Data
8. Processing of Data: editing, coding, transcription, tabulation, construction of tables and charts. 9. Analysis of Data: statistical treatment, testing hypotheses, interpretation of findings. 10. Report – writing.

Each of theses is explained in detailed below under the concerned headings. Research is an organized...
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