# Research Design and Statistics Concepts Worksheet

Topics: Sampling, Sampling error, Measurement Pages: 4 (889 words) Published: April 28, 2008
Research Design and Statistics Concepts Worksheet

Senthil Kumar
University of Phoenix

Research Design and Statistics Concepts Worksheet

ConceptApplication of Concept in ScenarioReference to Concept in Reading Levels of Measurement: There are four different levels of measurements: 1.Nominal
2.Ordinal
3.Ordinal.
4.Interval.
5.Ratio.
These different levels of measurement useful in business.

New board member and statistician Bea Hansen pointed out that the data collected from the focus groups and online surveys must be sorted and arranged in an appropriate manner(Scenario: USA World Bank). Nominal has no distinguishable advantage from one to another. Ordinal can be ranked but the distances between the rankings vary. Interval means there is a constant standard of measurement but zero has no true meaning. Ratio has a constant standard and zero is an absolute that means the complete absence of something. “There are actually four levels of measurement: nominal, ordinal, interval, and ration. The lowest, or the most primitive, measurement is the nominal level. The highest, or the level that gives us the most information about the observation, is the ratio level of measurement.” (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2003,page 10) Sampling Error:

The difference between a sample statistic and its corresponding parameter is a sampling error.

As per Bea Hansen the survey provide by Brian Allen, was complete useless because despite the sample size, not random and is not a true representation of population. Bea pointed out the valid random selection process as there were more men responding to the survey and results were distorted. (Scenario: USA World Bank.)“Each sample may have a different sample mean and a different sampling error. The value of the sampling error is based on the random selection of a sample. Therefore, sampling errors are random and occur by chance.” (Lind, Marchal, & Wathen, 2003,page 259) Concepts of validity, reliability, and...