*Recognized pioneer of nursing involvement in mental health
* Born 1924 in rural Ohio
* 1947 completed initial nursing education in Akron, Ohio * 1957 earned B.S. in nursing in public health and psychology (UCLA) * 1966 earned Masters degree in mental health, public health consultation (UCLA) * 1970 developed Neuman Systems Model (University of California) * 1985 received Doctorate in clinical psychology
References for biography section: www.nursesinfo/nursing_theory_person_neuman_betty.htm
Conceptual Model Development
* Developed conceptual model as a way to teach introductory nursing course to students. * Developed from Neuman’s concept of health and her view of the relationship between client and environment. * Neuman’s development goal was to provide a wholistic overview of human beings.
References for Conceptual Model Development: (Tomey& Alligood, 2006, pp. 140-159) Major Concepts
A. Clients - Wholistic Approach
* Clients viewed as whole parts in a dynamic interaction. * Clients are multi-dimensional layered beings including subsystems 1. Physical/Physiological
** References for A: http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/application.Betty_Neuman%27s_model.html ** References for B –K: (Tomey & Alligood, 2006, pp. 140-159) B. Basic Structure (central core) – Open System
* Clients may be an individual, a group, a family, or a community. * Clients as a system exchange energy and information with the environment both positively and negatively. * Client goes through repeated cycles of input and output and feedback
* Client achieves stability or homeostasis when a desired state of balance copes with stressors to maintain an optimal level of health.
C. Environment- the total of the internal and external forces which interact and...