This report will provide a critique of three research articles on the subject of celebrity endorsement. The paper will outline the specific research design characteristics which will used as the basis to compare the articles. Secondly this critique will summarise the three articles. Finally a look at the strengths and of the limitations of the critiqued articles is provided under discussion and conclusion.
2.0 Research Design Characteristics
Research design is the blueprint used to successfully plan and carry out a study. Research design characteristics consist of the methods and procedures that dictate the collection, measurement and analysis required in a study. Developing a plan allows a researcher to better allocate resources, too develop the overall organisation of the relationships among variables in a study and to gather empirical evidence to test these relationships (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, p. 141).
Outlined below is a list and explanation of individual research design characteristics used to analyse and compare research design.
Degree of problem crystallisation
When deciding on a design, researchers are faced with a choice between using an exploratory or formal study. The choice between an exploratory study and a formal study is associated with choosing a structure for a study, loosely structured study aimed at developing hypotheses and identifying areas of future research is considered an exploratory study. A formal study is conducted after exploratory research is already available and attempts to answer research questions or test hypothesised theories (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, pp. 141-143).
Method of data collection
Data collection requires either researchers observation of a phenomena or having someone communicate phenomena to the researcher. These two methods are known as the observation and communication methods. Observation method collection involves experiments and observational studies. The communication method relies on questionnaires and interviews to collect data (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, p. 143).
Researcher control over variables
Researcher control of variables refers to a researchers choice between an experimental design or an ex post facto design when planning a study. Experiments are the result of researcher manipulation of at least one independent variable and the observation of the effect on another dependant variable. Ex post facto design refers to a design in which the researcher exhibits no control over any variable and observes them in their natural environment (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, p. 143).
The purpose of the study and research design
The purpose of a study reflects whether the design will be of reporting, descriptive or causal nature. A causal study seeks to show causation between identified independent and dependent variables. An explanatory study attempts to explain and predict phenomena through quantitative research . A study in which the researchers goal is to describe characteristics of a phenomena is known as a descriptive study and generally addresses who, what, when, where and how questions. (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, pp. 143-144).
The time dimension
Time dimension refers to the period of time a study, investigation or any type of research encapsulates. The time dimension of research can be cross-sectional, where data is taken from one point in time. The time dimension can also be longitudinal, where a study takes data over an extended period of time. While research carried out with longitudinal time dimension may result in a more accurate, and comprehensive study, it is not always appropriate, practical or cost effective to carry out research this way. (Cooper & Schindler, 2008, p. 144).
The topical scope
The use of either statistical studies or case studies determines the level of topical scope in a piece of research. A statistical study is where a researcher investigates and tests variables...
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