Research Article Strengths & Weaknesses
Health care is a dynamic and forever changing field, and the professionals working within the health care field are not any different. Initial and continuing education is necessary to provide relevant and current nursing care. Critiquing research is one way to expand understanding of a subject, and ultimately make changes in practice in response to the current research knowledge obtained from studies. Additionally, nurses becoming a part of the research and critique process will often provide a background for conducting further study (Burns & Grove, 2007). Two articles describing two different research studies were examined by the writers of this article. One was a qualitative study regarding what nursing care was regularly missed on medical-surgical units as well as the reasons for missed care. The other study was a quantitative study to compare one behavioral counseling session with five behavioral counseling sessions in the effectiveness of increasing moderate-intensity physical activity, muscle strengthening, and stretching activities in older women. In the following paragraphs, the critiquing process will be used to evaluate the articles and corresponding research study. Problems and Purposes
In the qualitative study, the missed nursing care and the regret, guilt, and frustration that followed the nurses was reported as the problem. Kalisch clearly stated that “the purpose of this study was to determine nursing care regularly missed on medical-surgical units and reasons for missed care” (Kalisch, 2007, p. 306). Although the focus group interviews provided open discussion of the reported problem, it led to a fairly big database. Nine elements of missed care and seven themes of why care was missed were identified. Further research in each of these areas would be helpful in developing changes in nursing practice for more positive outcomes. In the quantitative study, the problem is women engage in less vigorous exercise and leisure-time activity than men, and their level of activity decreases further as they age that in turn leads to greater health problems. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of five versus one behavioral counseling session to (a) facilitate change in moderate- or greater-intensity physical activity, muscle strengthening, and stretching; and (b) determine the percentage of women who reach the Healthy People 2010 goal of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity five or more days of the week among sedentary women 50 to 65 years of age in a 12-week period” (Costanzo, Walker, Yates, McCabe & Berg, 2006, p. 789). Although the behavioral counseling sessions could be done by healthcare professionals other than nursing, the research is still relevant to nursing because of the negative health problems associated with lack of activity. Nurses remain a large force in getting health education to the public. Research Objectives, Questions, and Hypotheses
In the qualitative study, two research questions were clearly defined. (1)”What nursing care is regularly missed on medical-surgical units in acute care hospitals? and (2) What are the reasons nursing staff give for not completing these particular aspects of care?” (Kalisch, 2006, p. 306). The quantitative study did not present the research study in question form. However, the research question appears to ask whether or not five behavioral counseling sessions is more effective than one behavioral counseling session in creating a physical activity behavior change with older women (Costanzo et al., 2006). In this latter discussed study, it is inferred that the authors believe that increasing the number and length of behavioral counseling sessions and using the 5A’s can have a positive influence in helping older women increase their physical activity levels. This would be their hypothesis for the quantitative study. A hypothesis is not needed...