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Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on
metabolism and endurance performance

Gregory R. Cox, Ben Desbrow, Paul G. Montgomery, Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Theodore A. Macrides, David T. Martin, Angela Moquin, Alan Roberts, John A. Hawley and Louise M. Burke
J Appl Physiol 93:990-999, 2002. First published 31 May 2002; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00249.2002
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J Appl Physiol 93: 990–999, 2002.
First published May 31, 2002; 10.1152/japplphysiol.00249.2002.

Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake
on metabolism and endurance performance

Received 25 March 2002; accepted in final form 24 May 2002

Cox, Gregory R., Ben Desbrow, Paul G. Montgomery,
Megan E. Anderson, Clinton R. Bruce, Theodore A.
Macrides, David T. Martin, Angela Moquin, Alan Roberts, John A. Hawley, and Louise M. Burke. Effect of different protocols of caffeine intake on metabolism and endurance performance. J Appl Physiol 93: 990–999, 2002. First published May 31, 2002; 10.1152/japplphysiol.00249.

2002.—Competitive athletes completed two studies of 2-h
steady-state (SS) cycling at 70% peak O2 uptake followed by
7 kJ/kg time trial (TT) with carbohydrate (CHO) intake
before (2 g/kg) and during (6% CHO drink) exercise. In Study A, 12 subjects received either 6 mg/kg caffeine 1 h preexercise (Precaf), 6
1 mg/kg caffeine every 20 min throughout SS
(Durcaf), 2 5 ml/kg Coca-Cola between 100 and 120 min SS
and during TT (Coke), or placebo. Improvements in TT were
as follows: Precaf, 3.4% (0.2–6.5%, 95% confidence interval); Durcaf, 3.1% ( 0.1–6.5%); and Coke, 3.1% ( 0.2–6.2%). In Study B, eight subjects received 3 5 ml/kg of different cola drinks during the last 40 min of SS and TT: decaffeinated, 6% CHO (control); caffeinated, 6% CHO; decaffeinated, 11%

CHO; and caffeinated, 11% CHO (Coke). Coke enhanced TT
by 3.3% (0.8–5.9%), with all trials showing 2.2% TT enhancement (0.5–3.8%; P 0.05) due to caffeine. Overall, 1) 6 mg/kg caffeine enhanced TT performance independent of timing of
intake and 2) replacing sports drink with Coca-Cola during
the latter stages of exercise was equally effective in enhancing endurance performance, primarily due to low intake of caffeine ( 1.5 mg/kg).
carbohydrate; ergogenic aids; cola drink

an enhancement of prolonged, submaximal exercise after caffeine ingestion (2, 7, 9, 10, 14–16, 19, 22, 23, 27, 29). The mechanism(s) proposed to explain these benefits includes an increased utilization of plasma free fatty acids (FFA)

(27) and/or intramuscular triacylglycerol (10), which
acts to reduce the rate of muscle glycogenolysis (10,
27), as well as favorable changes in central nervous

MANY STUDIES HAVE REPORTED

Address for reprint requests and other correspondence: L. M. Burke, Dept. of Sports Nutrition, P. O. Box 176, Belconnen ACT 2616,...
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