Research and Statistics

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HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a formal tentative statement of the expected relationship between two or more variables under study.

Definition: A hypothesis is an assumption statement about the relationship between two or more variables that suggest an answer to the research question.

OR

Good & Hatt define hypothesis as shrewd guess or inference that is formulated and provisionally adopted to explain observed facts or conditions and to guide in further investigation.

Importance:

❖ Hypothesis enables the researcher to objectively investigate new areas of discovery.

❖ Hypothesis provides objectivity to the research activity.

❖ It also provides direction to conduct research such as defining the sources and relevance of data.

❖ Hypothesis provides clear and specific goals to the researchers.

❖ Hypothesis provide link between theories and actual practical research.

❖ It provides a bridge between theory and reality.

❖ A hypothesis suggests which type of research is likely to be most appropriate.

❖ As it is tentative statement of anticipated results.

❖ It stimulating the thinking process of researcher as the researcher forms the hypothesis by anticipating outcome.

❖ It also determines the most appropriate research designs and techniques of data analysis.

❖ Hypothesis provides understanding to the researchers about what to except from the results of the research study.

❖ It serves as a framework for drawing conclusions of a research study.

❖ Without hypothesis, research would be like aimless wandering.

Characteristics of a good hypothesis:

The main characteristics of a good hypothesis as follows:

➢ Conceptual clarity: Hypothesis should consist of clearly defined and understandable concepts. Hypothesis can be stated in declarative statement, in present tense.

➢ Empirical referents: A good hypothesis must have empirical basis from the area of enquiry.

➢ Objectivity: Hypothesis must be objective, which facilitate objectivity in data collection.

➢ Specificity: It should be specific, not general, and should explain the expected relation between variables.

➢ Relevant: The hypothesis should be relevant to the problem being studied as well as the objectives of the study.

➢ Testability: Hypothesis should be testable and should not be a moral judgement.

➢ Consistency: A hypothesis should be consistent with an existing body of theories, research findings, and other hypothesis.

➢ Simplicity: A hypothesis should be formulated in simple and understandable terms.

➢ Availability of techniques: The researcher must make sure that methods are available for testing their proposed hypothesis.

➢ Purposiveness: The researcher must formulate only purposeful hypothesis.

➢ Verifiability: A good hypothesis can be actually verified in practical terms.

➢ Profundity of effect: A good research should have profound effect upon a variety of research variables.

➢ Economical: The expenditure of money and the time can be controlled if the hypothesis underlying the research undertaken is good.

Sources of hypothesis

Hypothesis in research study cannot developed merely with wild guesses or assumptions , but they are generated from variety if sources such as theoretical or conceptual

Frameworks, previous research findings,real life experiences and academic literature.

➢ Theoretical or conceptual frameworks: the most important sources of hypothesis are theoretical or conceptual framework developed for the study. Through a deductive approach these hypothesis are drawn from theoretical and conceptual framework for testing them.

➢ Previous research: findings of the previous research studies may be used for framing the hypothesis for another study.

➢ real life...
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