Research and Its Types

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* Research is organised, systematic, data-based critical scientific inquiry or investigation into a specific problem, undertaken with the objective of finding answers or solutions to it. * Outcome: Information that enables managers to make decisions to rectify problems. * Data : Primary (first-hand) or Secondary (readily available); Quantitative or Qualitative

Types of research:
* Applied Research: Research done with the intention of applying the results of its finding to solving specific problems currently being experienced in the organisation. * Basic Research: Research done with the intention to generate more knowledge and understanding of the phenomena that occur and to build theories based on the research results.

Both types of research follow the same steps of systematic inquiry to arrive at solutions to problems

Research objectives:
* Objectives are statements, not questions
* Your objectives will form the basis of your methods

How to write oblectives:
Your objectives are structured using action-words like:
* assess or reassess
* develop
* provide (an understanding of …)
* examine
* analyse
* interpret
* elucidate
* articulate
* establish
* construct
* evaluate or re-evaluate

Research questions
* It guides your research ad is what you really want to answer * It cannot be oversimplistic
What to questions to use?

* Why?
Establishes a general focus for the investigator and stakeholders * What and How?
Help to establish the problem issues
Example:
* O: To analyse the demographics and lifestyle profiles of potential customers. * Q: What is the profile of the target market of the restaurant?

Unit of analysis
* The first step in deciding how you will analyze the data is to define a unit of analysis. * The unit of analysis is the object (case) about which generalizations are made based on an analysis. It is the major entity that is being studied. * It is the “what” or “whom” that is being studied. * E.g. individual people, families, households, business entities, public organisations.

It is important to understand that your unit of analysis is not the same as your unit of observation. It is possible to analyze data in various ways. For instance, data from the student survey example in the previous example (click to revisit example) was recorded for individual students (i.e., the unit of observation), but you could group the students by city and compare Boston students to New York students, thus creating a new unit of analysis (i.e., groups of students).

Unit of observation
* The unit of observation is a basic concept that represents the objects that are observed and about which information is systematically collected. * For example, a survey may collect data on the restaurant (unit of analysis). That data may include customers’ contact details (unit of observation).

The unit of observation is the unit from where data is collected, such as an individual in a household. For example, a survey may collect data on individuals (unit of analysis). That data may include the individuals' addresses (unit of observation).

Determination
* The unit of analysis is determined by an interest in exploring or explaining a specific phenomenon. * The unit of observation is determined by the method by which observations have been selected.

Quantitative research: * Structured research instruments
* Larger sample size
* Results easily replicated
* Information about how often or how many
* Less in-depth, flexible
* Researcher should know clearly what he / she is looking for * Statistical analysis
*

Qualitative research:
* Less structured instruments
* Smaller sample size
* Results difficult to replicate
* Information about why and how
* More...
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