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  • Topic: Developed country, Mass media, Newspaper
  • Pages : 9 (2340 words )
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  • Published : March 31, 2013
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1. Introduction
2. Themes Affecting Journalism and Mass Communication
3. Technology Brings Changes to Journalism and Mass Communication 3.1. Earliest History
3.2. Earliest News Sheets
3.3. Technological Advances in Printing—Part I—and Paper-Making Production 3.4. Decline of Journalism in the West
3.5. Technological Advances in Printing—Part II
3.6. Technological Revolution of the Nineteenth Century
3.7. Radio
3.8. Television
3.9. Internet
4. Concentration of Ownership
4.1. Earliest History
4.2. Corporatization of Publishing
4.3. Broadcasting Ownership Trends
4.4. Global Media Ownership Trends
4.5. Internet and Decentralization of Ownership/Control
5. Audience Segmentation
5.1. Audience of Early Journalism
5.2. Publishing and Broadcasting for the Masses
5.3. Segmentation of the Audience
6. Changes in the Journalism Workforce
6.1. Early Trends
6.2. Improved Education
6.3. Moves Toward Diversifying the Journalism Workplace
7. The Future of Journalism and Mass Communication
Glossary
Bibliography
Biographical Sketch
Summary

Journalism dates back many centuries, to a time before modern forms of mass communication. This essay looks at the evolution of journalism and mass communication worldwide, from its earliest days to today. The chapter looks at five major trends in that evolution. The first trend is technological. Over the centuries, technical innovations and inventions have brought increased speed of production and

©Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS)

JOURNALISM AND MASS COMMUNICATION – Vol. I - Evolution of Journalism and Mass Communication - Kathleen L. Endres

information delivery, reduced costs, improved accuracy, and significant transformations of the news product. Second, the ownership of journalism outlets—newsletters, newspapers, magazines, and broadcast stations—has become increasingly concentrated in the hands of the few. However, with the introduction of relatively inexpensive digital technology, the number of voices has proliferated. Third, the audience for journalism and mass communication is changing. When journalism started, news was aimed at the most affluent in society. With technological changes that began in the nineteenth century, journalism started to reach the masses.

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In the second half of the twentieth century, however, media researchers, programmers, and advertisers began to recognize that the smaller, more segmented audience was better. Segmentation became the watchword at the end of the twentieth century. The multiplicity of voices on the Internet is tailor-made for this segmentation. Fourth, journalism and journalists are moving toward professionalism. More and more journalists across the world are college educated or have received specialized training in journalism. Fifth, the journalism workforce is beginning to diversify. Although the typical journalist remains a man from the established, dominant cultural group of the country, more women and cultural/racial/religious minorities are entering the profession. The chapter concludes with an evaluation of where journalism and mass communication are going in the new century.

1. Introduction

In most developed countries, journalism and mass communication are just the staples of modern life. Newspapers and magazines bring the news of the world as well as the amusements of the day to the doorstep. Radio news and talk programs update the listener at the workplace, in the car, in the home, everywhere. Television links sound with pictures during the regularly scheduled news broadcasts or at any time in the event of breaking news. One click on a web site takes the browser across the world to download a story, a radio program, a song, or a snippet of the latest motion picture. In developed countries, journalism and the many, many messages of mass communication have led to the malaise of modern society—“information overload.” Citizens in developed...
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