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Which Substance Melts Ice the Fastest?
(Salt, Sugar, or Pepper)

Acknowledgments

Question
Which substance melts ice the fastest (Salt, Sugar, or Pepper)?

Background Information
Water can be found as a liquid, solid, or gas. Water is made up of tiny particles which are hard to see in solids. A solid is matter that has a shape and usually takes up space. Its particles are closely packed together. The particles have some energy. They move back and forth, but they do not change places with each other. These tiny particles move around when water is in its liquid form, but as the temperature gets colder; they slow down and move less. If it’s too cold, they move so slow that they stick together and change from liquid water to solid water called ice. Ice is formed when the temperature of water is less than 32 degrees Fahrenheit, or 0 degrees Celsius. If other substances are added to the water, such as sugar or salt, the temperature must drop below 32 degrees before ice begins to form. Ice melts because when the temperature warms up, the particles separate and start moving around again fast enough to turn the water back into a liquid.

My STEM Project
My STEM project is about the different substances which melts ice the fastest.

How does salt melts ice?
Salt melts ice by lowering the freezing point of the water around the ice. The ice melts and is unable to re-freeze except at a much lower temperature. Adding minerals, like salt, to ice can increase the rate of melting by disrupting the balance of the molecule. It is hard for salt to be absorbed by ice, but easy by water. Salt, on the other hand, combines with the ice (water) to produce a solution with a lower freezing point. This would melt the ice without sunlight, as long as the temperature stays above the new freezing point. Salt comes in grains like pepper, but that's where the similarity ends. Chemically, salt is called sodium chloride, and it is made up of sodium and chlorine atoms. When...
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