Identify and give brief explanation on the common disability and impairments that may affect learning ability of a child.
Disability is defined as lack of adequate power, strength, physical or mental ability. It can as well be elaborated as physically or mentally handicapped, especially one that prevents a person from living a full, normal life or from holding a gainful activity.
Impairment is any abnormality of partial or complete loss of, or loss of the function of, a body part, organ, or system. There are several common disabilities and impairments that may affect learning ability of a child, these includes can physical, sensory, speech and even cognitive impairments.
Physical impairment is defined as a dysfunction of the musculoskeletal and/or neurological body systems, which affects the functional ability of a student to move or coordinate. Such as partial or total paralysis, amputation or severe injury, active sickle cell disease, muscular dystrophy, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. Additionally, health impairments (e.g. cancer, HIV/AIDS, cystic fibrosis, respiratory and cardiac diseases) may be debilitating and, consequently, affect mobility.These conditions also may impair the strength, speed, endurance, and coordination, necessary for proper hand or body function. Conditions such as cerebral palsy often involve sensory and speech dysfunction. While the degree of disability varies, students may have difficulty getting to or from class, performing in class, or managing out-of-class tests and assignments.
Sensory impairment is when one of your senses; sight, hearing, smell, touch, taste or awareness, is no longer normal. For example, if you wear glasses you have a slight impairment. If you find it hard to hear then you have a hearing impairment. You don’t have to have completely lost a sense to be sensory impaired. Some of the sensory impairment includes the following. Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors Students with visual impairments are constantly challenged by classroom instructional strategies. Although they can easily hear lectures and discussions, it can be difficult for them to access class syllabi, textbooks, overhead projector transparences, PowerPoint presentations, the chalkboard, maps, videos, written exams, demonstrations, library materials, and films. A large part of traditional learning is visual; fortunately, many students with visual disabilities have developed strategies to learn. Students who are blind or visually impaired vary considerably. For example, some have no vision; others are able to see large forms; others can see print if magnified or (enlarged); and still others have tunnel vision with no peripheral vision or the reverse. Furthermore, some students with visual impairments use Braille, and some have little or no knowledge of Braille. They use a variety of accommodations, equipment, and compensatory strategies based upon their widely varying needs.
Speech and language impairment is defined as a communication disorder that adversely affects the child's ability to talk, understand, read, and write. This disability category can be divided into two groups: speech impairments and language impairments.
Speech impairment, there are three basic types of speech impairments: articulation disorders, fluency disorders, and voice disorders. Articulation disorders are errors in the production of speech sounds that may be related to physiological limitations in the skeletal or muscular support for speech production. These disorders include: missions: (bo for boat), Substitutions: (wabbit for rabbit), Distortions: (ship for sip). Fluency disorders are difficulties with the rhythm and timing of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions, or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases. Common fluency disorders include:...