Topics: Dyslexia, Reading, Learning disability Pages: 69 (23087 words) Published: March 5, 2013
Chapter 1
Problem and Its Background

I. Introduction
Reading is a multifaceted process involving word recognition, comprehension, fluency, and motivation. Learn how readers integrate these facets to make meaning from print.
Reading is making meaning from print. It requires that we: Identify the words in print – a process called word recognition, Construct an understanding from them – a process called comprehension, and Coordinate identifying words and making meaning so that reading is automatic and accurate – an achievement called fluency

Sometimes you can make meaning from print without being able to identify all the words.
There are some techniques that are being used to help low performing students develop their skill on reading; one of those techniques is the ‘Read-Aloud’.
First let’s define a read-aloud. A read-aloud is simply that—a time in the school day when a teacher reads orally to a group of students. A variety of print sources can be read: a picture or chapter book, a poem, a letter, the wall, a sentence chart—a teacher is only limited by their imagination. While the teacher reads, the students listen, engage in the material, and comprehend what they hear. Typically, the teacher shows the pictures to the students to not only engage them in the story but to demonstrate the value of pictures to a story line. The story can be new or one previously read. Read-aloud should occur throughout each school day. Opportunities can occur: At the start or close of the school day, As a transition from one activity to another (example: following recess), As part of a reading and/or writing mini lessons, As part of a content lesson, As a planned part of each day. Reading Purpose and Reading Comprehension

Reading is an activity with a purpose. A person may read in order gain information or verify existing knowledge, or in order to critique a writer’s ideas or writing style. A person may also read for enjoyment, or to enhance knowledge of the language being read. The purpose(s) for reading guide the reader’s selection of texts.

The purpose for reading also determines the appropriate approach to reading comprehension. A person who needs to know whether she can afford to eat at a particular restaurant needs to comprehend the pricing information provided on the menu, but does not need to recognize the name of every appetizer listed. A person reading poetry for enjoyment needs to recognize the words the poet uses and the ways they are put together, but does not need to identify main idea and supporting details. However, a person using a scientific article to support an opinion needs to know the vocabulary that is used, understand the facts and cause-effect sequences that are presented, and recognize ideas that are presented as hypothesis and givens.

Reading research shows that good readers: Read extensively, Integrate information in the text with existing knowledge, Have a flexible reading style, depending on what they are reading, Rely on different skills interacting: perceptual processing, phonemic processing recall, Read for a purpose; reading serves a function, Reading as a Process, and Reading is an interactive process.

Reading is an interactive process that goes on between the reader and the text, resulting in comprehension. The text presents letters, words, sentences, and paragraphs that encode meaning. The reader uses knowledge, skills, and strategies to determine what that meaning is. Reader knowledge, skills, and strategies include

Linguistic competence: the ability to recognize the elements of the writing system; knowledge of vocabulary; knowledge of how words are structured into sentences •Discourse competence: knowledge of discourse markers and how they connect parts of the text to one another •Sociolinguistic competence: knowledge about different types of texts and their usual structure and content •Strategic competence: the ability to use top-down strategies, as...
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