Report on Power Sector India

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INDIAN POWER SECTOR

1. INTRODUCTION [1]
1.1 Indian Power Sector (Generation and Supply)
The Indian Power Industry is one of the largest and most important industries in India as it fulfils the energy requirements of various other industries. It is one of the most critical components of infrastructure that affects economic growth and the well-being of our nation. India has the world’s 5th largest electricity generation capacity and it is the 6th largest energy consumer accounting for 3.4% of global energy consumption. Due to the fast-paced growth of the Indian economy, the country’s energy demand has grown at an average of 3.6% p.a. over the past 30 years. In India, power is generated by State utilities, Central utilities and Private players. The share of installed capacity of power available with each of the three sectors can be seen in the pie-chart below:

Private sector 29% State Sector 41%

Central Sector 30% Fig 1.1 Share of installed capacity of Power

Top Players in the Power Sector
NTPC Power Grid Corporation Reliance Infrastructure TATA Power Table No.1.1 Top Players in the Power Sector

Public Sector (State and Central) Private Sector

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Report of CEA (Central Electricity Authority) i.e. as on 31-03-2011    Total Installed Capacity of Power in India is 173626.40 MW More than 75% of the installed capacity is with the public sector (state and central) The state sector having the largest share of 48%.

1.2 Working of Power Industry

Fig 1.2 Various sources of Power generation

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1.3 Major Sources of the Power generation
    Thermal Power Hydro Power Nuclear Power Renewable Energy Sources

Thermal Power: In India, major proportion of power is generated from thermal sources where the main raw material used is coal. Around 83% of thermal power is generated using coal as a raw material whereas 16% of thermal power is generated with the help of Gas and 1% of thermal power is generated with the help of Oil Hydro Power: Hydroelectric power or hydroelectricity is electrical power which is generated through the energy of falling water. India has hydro power generation potential worth 1, 50,000 MW of which only 25 % has been harnessed till date. Nuclear Power: A Nuclear Power Plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. A nuclear reactor is a device to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. In the process, heat is generated which is then used to generate electricity. Renewable Energy Sources: The energy obtained from renewable sources like sun, wind, biomass can be converted into power. Renewable energy sources have great potential to contribute to improving energy security of India and reducing green-house gas emissions. India is among the five largest wind power generators in the world.

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2. POWER SECTOR ANALYSIS [2]
2.1 GENERATION Capacity in India Total installed capacity
Sector State sector Central sector Private sector Total Fuel Total Thermal Coal Gas Oil Hydro (Renewable) Nuclear RES** (MNRE) Total MW 86405.85 62886.63 61659.24 210951.72 MW 140976.18 120,873.38 18,903.05 1,199.75 39,339.40 4,780.00 25,856.14 2,10,951.72 Table No.2.1 Total installed capacity

%age 40.96 29.81 29.22

%age 66.82 57.29 8.96 0.56 18.64 2.26 12.25 100.00

Table No.2.2 Total installed capacity Region wise

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Fig 2.1 All India generating capacity (MW)

2.2 TRANSMISSION Network in India
Transmission of electricity is defined as bulk transfer of power over a long distance at a high voltage, generally of 132 KV and above. In India bulk transmission has increased from 3708 ckm in 1950 to more than 265,000 ckm today. The entire country has been divided into five regions for transmission systems, namely Northern Region, North Eastern Region, Eastern Region, Southern Region and Western Region. The interconnected transmission system...
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