INTAKE: JANUARY 2012
COURSE: BACHELOR OF NURSING SCIENCE WITH HONOURS
COURSE TITLE: RENAL NURSING
MATRICULATION NO: 871001305396001
IDENTITY CARD NO. : 871001305396
TELEPHONE NO. : 0166695545
E-MAIL : email@example.com
LEARNING CENTRE: PPW Melaka
NO| TITLE| PAGES|
1| INTRODUCTION * URINARY SYSTEM * WHAT DO NORMAL KIDNEYS DO?| 3| 2| RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY * HEAMODIALYSIS * PERITONEAL DIALYSIS| 4 - 7| 3| RENAL TRANSPLANTATION * TRANSPLANT PROCEDURE * TISSUE TYPING * CONTRAINDICATION OF TRANSPLANTATION * TYPES OF TRANSPLANT * DONOR WORK UP * RECIPIENT WORK UP| 8 - 14| 4| PRE OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT| 14 - 15|
5| INTRA OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT| 16|
6| POST OPERATIVE MANAGEMENT| 16 - 17|
7| COMPLICATIONS OF KIDNEY TRANSPLANT| 17 - 18|
8| NURSING PROCESS| 18 - 21|
9| HEALTH EDUCATION FOR PATIENT| 22|
10| CONCLUSION| 23|
11| REFERENCES| 24|
The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary blabber and urethra. The kidneys produce the urine and account for the other functions attributed to the urinary system. The ureters convey the urine away from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, which is a temporary reservoir for the urine. The urethra is a tubular structure that carries the urine from the urinary bladder to outside of the body. WHAT DO NORMAL KIDNEYS DO?
* Remove extra water.
* Remove waste products.
* Balance chemicals in the body.
* Help control blood pressure.
* Help make red blood cell.
* Help build strong bones.
When the kidneys no longer able to perform normal functions and starts to deteriorate, renal failure will occur, this condition may be acute or chronic. Then the following problems will occur: * Retention of waste and toxic products and excess water. * Nausea
* Loss of appetite
* Swelling of feet and body
* High blood pressure
* Upset in the internal balance of acid and base leads to a build-up of acid in the body. * Acidosis
* Inadequate production of hormones.
* Lack of vitamin D – Bone disease
* Lack of Erythropoietin – Anaemia
There are two measures that can help to slow down the rate of kidney: * Control of blood pressure by restricting low salt diet and observation of high blood pressure medications. * Protein restriction diet by reducing the intake of meat and soya products. When the kidneys function falls to about 10%. Then haemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis is required to sustain life.
RENAL REPLACEMENT THERAPY
Haemodialysis removes blood from the body and sends it across a special filter with solutions. The filter helps remove harmful substances. The blood is then returned to the body. If you have haemodialysis, your health care team will need a way to get to the blood in your blood vessels. This is called access. You may need this for a little while (temporary) or for a long time (permanent). Temporary access involves putting a hollow tube (called a catheter) into a large vein, usually in your neck, chest, or leg near the groin. This is most often done in emergency situations for short periods of time. However, some catheters can be used for weeks or even months. Permanent access is created by surgically joining an artery to a vein, usually in the arm. There are two ways to do this: * An artery and a vein are directly connected to each other. After a few months, they form a connection called a fistula (an arteriovenous fistula, or AVF). This type has a lower risk of infections and lasts longer. * A human-made bridge (arteriovenous graft or AVG) can also be used to connect the artery and vein. An AVG can be used for dialysis within several weeks. * When you have dialysis, one or two...