What is Vocabulary?
* Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to comprehend and communicate effectively. * Vocabulary can be described as oral vocabulary or reading vocabulary. * Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use or recognize in listening. * Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.
Vocabulary plays a critical role in learning to read and in comprehending what is read. * Children must understand the vocabulary used by the teacher in order for them to be successful in their classroom * As children read for comprehension, they must understand the meaning of words in the text. * Children learn vocabulary primarily through indirect means, hearing words used by their parents, teachers, and others in a variety of contexts and through reading.
Why Vocabulary is important? - The Research Connection
* Hart and Risley (1995) found out that by the age of 3, children living in deep poverty had acquired is than one-third of the vocabulary of children from high- SES families. * The National Reading Panel reviewed the research in the area of vocabulary instruction. The Panel found out that : * Teaching specific words before reading helps both vocabulary learning and reading comprehension. * Children learn words best when they are provided with instruction over an extent period of time. * Repeated exposure to vocabulary in many contexts aids word learning. Children learn vocabulary when they are explicitly taught both individual words nd word-learning strategies. * Direct vocabulary instruction aids reading comprehension.
How Vocabulary Fits into Reading Program
* During beginning stage, vocabulary instruction can be presented orally. * For at-risk students who enter school without adequate understanding of many words commonly used in directions given by teachers, instruction will begin with instruction in basic language concepts. * For children who enter school already knowing the basic concepts, vocabulary instruction will start with more sophisticated words. * As students progress through the grades, vocabulary instruction becomes more related to the stories that children read. Teachers select vocabulary words from upcoming stories. * In addition to teaching the meaning of particular words, independent word-learning strategies such as using word parts, contextual analysis, and teaching independent use of the dictionary should also be taught. VOCABULARY INSTRUCTION DURING THE BEGINNING STAGE
Teaching Vocabulary through Explicit Instruction
All vocabulary instruction during beginning stage is oral because the children will not be able to read sufficient numbers of words. Vocabulary can be taught orally by the use of three different procedures: * Modeling – used when verbal explanation of a new word would need to include words students do not understand. * Synonyms – used when a student knows a word(s) that can be explain the meaning of a new, unknown word. * Definitions – used when students have adequate language to understand a longer explanation and when the concept is too complicated to be explained through synonym.
* A set of example is appropriate only if it demonstrates the teacher’s intended meaning. * A set of examples is inappropriate if the student can learn an interpretation other than the intended one. * Learning a vocabulary word implies applying the word correctly to a set of examples. For learning to take place in the classroom, a teacher must provide enough positive examples of a new word so the student can respond to a full range of examples. * Selecting examples that show the range of positive examples is the first step in constructing a set of examples. The examples also set a base for fostering generalization to things not...