Religion and Popular Culture

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G. Parrinder
“Sex”: (OED)
i) divisions between organic beings into male and female
ii) biological distinction
iii) physical union ⎝ sexual intercourse

Sexuality:
← Innate
← Context-specific
← Preference
 
Gender:
← Biological or role
← Complex and changeable

Stets and Burke
← “Femininity and masculinity - or one's gender identity - refers to the degree to which persons see themselves as masculine or feminine given what it means to be a man or woman in society. Femininity and masculinity are rooted in the social (one's gender) rather than the biological (one's sex). Societal members decide what being male or female means (e.g., dominant or passive, brave or emotional), and males will generally respond by defining themselves as masculine while females will generally define themselves as feminine. Because these are social definitions, however, it is possible for one to be female and see herself as masculine or male and see himself as feminine.”

← “Gender roles are shared expectations of behavior given one's gender. For example, gender roles might include women investing in the domestic role and men investing in the worker role.”  
← “Gender stereotypes are shared views of personality traits often tied to one's gender such as instrumentality in men and expressiveness in women.”

← “Gender attitudes that are the views of others or situations commonly associated with one's gender such as men thinking in terms of justice and women thinking in terms of care. Although gender roles, gender stereotypes and gender attitudes influence one's gender identity, they are not the same as gender identity.”

Kilbourne
“Toxic Cultural Environment” -

Franz Boas
“Cultural Pluralism”
← The proliferation of multiple cultures within one location, leading to greater diversity ← Potential to create respect for cultural difference
← More tv stations/programs that cater to minority cultures and religions ← Reflects changing religious landscape of Canada

Robert Orsi
“Relationality of despair”
← Ability to generate identification

Hal Niedzviecki
“The Pop Promise”:
- We Want Some Too
← “Be all you can be”
◦ Promise that the individual has the ability to act and be special in the world ◦ We’ll buy anything in the hopes that we can attain the goal ◦ Celebrity lifestyle is something we strive to attain ◦ “Making it” is about finding a spiritual place with pop culture ← An empty promise, but marketed everywhere

Dale and Foy
“Legitimating power of pop culture”: a marginal issue is portrayed in pop culture, challenging the status quo, calling for increased openness on the part of the public, and paving the way for real life examples

Suzie O’Brian & Imre Szeman:

Representation is “The social production of meaning through sign systems (i.e. words, images, gestures, etc.). It involves making meaning by creating links between conceptual and linguistic or signifying levels of meaning, links that are established through codes shared by members of a culture. Inseparable from the socially specific processes of ideology and mythology, representation constructs the world in particular ways that have significant bearing on the organization of society.”

“Representation”: (OED)
1: the action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being so represented 2: the description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way .
Stan Cohen
“Moral panic”
“Societies appear to be subject, every now and then, to periods of moral panic. A condition, episode, person or group of persons emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interests; its nature is presented in a stylized and stereo-typical fashion by the mass media; the moral barricades are manned by editors, bishops, politicians and other right-thinking people…. At its height, moral panic spreads a wide...
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