Langer (Journal 2004 p. 76). The research team identified three types of teachers: 1. Effective teachers in effective schools; 2. Effective teachers in typical schools, and 3. Typical teachers in typical schools. In effective schools, students were “beating the odds” in test scores, and the effective teachers there found their work encouraged and sustained by a supportive school and district climate that: 1. Coordinates efforts to improve student achievement.
2. Fosters teachers participation in a variety of professional activities. 3. Creates instructional-improvement activities in ways that offer teacher a strong sense of agency. 4. Values commitment to the profession teaching.
5. Engenders caring toward students and colleagues, and
6. Fosters respect for learning as a normal part of life. Furthermore, the assumption in articles dealing with the teacher reflection is that analysis of needs, problems, change processes, feeling of efficacy, beliefs are all factors that contribute to teaches professional development, be it through enhanced cognitions or new or improved practices. Reflection is discussed and used in research in several ways. The studies in this decade centre primarily on reflection as an instrument for change and on the various ways in which reflection can be developed. A group of explicitly considers the contribution to reflection of narrative methods such as story telling (for example, about Professional Development School Experiences) and the construction of stories within professional development activities. (Breault, 2010), (Day and Leitch, 2001), (Doecke et al., 2000) and (Shank, 2006. Set in Lithuania Arl the U.S.A., the Article by Jurasaite-Harbison and Rex (2010) narrate two-year ethnographic study that looks at how teachers in three different types of schools perceive themselves as learners and how their school cultures create opportunities for teachers’ professional development. On the basis of their findings, the authors conclude that the most productive conditions for informal workplace learning is a teacher culture that encourages and values collaborative learning. Evidence shows that professional development has an impact on teachers’ beliefs and behaviors. Evidence also indicates that the relationship between teachers’ beliefs and their practice is not straightforward or simple; on the contrary, it is dialectic, “moving back and forth between change in belief and change in classroom practice” (Cobb, Wood, and Yackel, 1990; Frank et al., 1997; Thompson, 1992, in Nelson, 1999, p. 6) Wood and Bennett (2000) support this statement with the results of a study, in which a group of early childhood educators in England were helping to collect data concerning their theories of play and their relationship to practice. As a result, these educators changed their own theories or teaching practices, or even both. Similar results are reported by Kettel and Sellas (1996) in a study of the development of practical theory of student-teachers in Australia; by Kallestad and Olweus (1998) in a study involving Norwegian teachers, which shows that teachers’ professional preparation and development have a large impact on defining teachers’ goals for their students, and these goals in turn affect the teachers’ behavior in the classrooms and schools; and also by Youngs (2001). Following the examination of data assessing the effects of four different models of professional development (teachers’ networks, the use of consultants and inter-visitations, students’ assessments and school improvement plans) on teachers’ professional development and school capacity in different part of the U.S.A, Youngs found that all models generally strengthened teachers’ knowledge, skills and dispositions, and they had varied effects on other aspects of school capacity. Yet, there is still a need for more research to be done in this area. According to the latest literature, some studies...
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