Related Literature of Computer Exposure

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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Most of our youth and students today are fond of going into internet shop to use computer, without knowledge of their parents what they are up to. They will ask money from their parents telling that they have something to search in the internet for their project or assignments, although others do so, but there are some who just make it as an alibi so that they can compete skills with their peers through playing games online like for example war craft, battle realms, DOTA etc. Related Literature

Foreign
Since Time named the microcomputer their “Man of the Year” in 1983 there has been a continued drive for public school teachers to become computer literate. A nationwide study concluded that although teachers have increased computer availability in their classrooms, they are not integrating computers into the standard curricula. The present study examined “technophobia” as an explanation for low levels of computer utilization. Elementary teachers (N = 171), secondary science teachers (N - 117), and secondary humanities teachers (N = 200) in 54 schools across five urban school districts completed three measures of technophobia and a measure of demographic characteristics, computer/technology experience, computer availability, and current computer use. Results indicated that: (1) computers are available at all schools, but are not being used by many teachers; (2) many teachers are technophobic, particularly elementary teachers and secondary humanities teachers; (3) teachers are most worried about dealing with the actual computer machinery in their classroom, about computer errors, and about learning to use computers; and (4) predictive models showed that although computer experience is the most prominent predictor of technophobia, it is not the only predictor — age, gender, teaching experience, computer availability, ethnicity, and school socioeconomic status also play an important role in predicting technophobia. Implications of these results are discussed in terms of the long-term effects that technophobic teachers will have on their current and future students.

Negative Effects on children using the internet
Despite the potential negative effects on children using the Internet, more than 30% of surveyed parents had not discussed the downside of Internet use with their children (Internet Advisory Board, 2001), and 62% of parents of teenagers did not realize that their children had visited inappropriate Web sites (Yankelovich Partners, 1999). Recognizing the ever-serious negative aspects of children using the Internet and parents' possible underestimation of, or ignorance about, their children's Internet usage and its effects, this study explores the degree of children's exposure to negative Internet content and detects the possible discrepancy between what parents think their children are doing online and their children's actual activities. In doing so, this study carefully dissects the possible causes and consequences of perceived parental control over children's Internet usage. Concerned that inappropriate Internet content may jeopardize the health or safety of children, the present study is a crucial attempt that aims to address the following research inquires with regard to children's Internet usage: (a) to understand the degree to which children are exposed to negative Internet content, (b) to detect a possible discrepancy between parents' perception and children's actual exposure to negative Internet content, (c) to examine various antecedents explaining perceived parental control over children's

Internet usage, and (d) to suggest various ways to decrease children's exposure to negative Internet content. 1. Video Game Addiction
Researchers have explored the notion of video game addiction since the mid eighties, however the research on the topic is disparate and preliminary. Due to the abovementioned shortfalls of the term 'addiction', the phenomenon has also been referred...
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