Related Literature

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Review of Related Literature

Classification of Wastes
A. Solid Waste
B. Liquid Waste
C. Sludge
D. Hazardous Waste
I. Waste Management
A. Waste Management in Developed Nations
1. Solid Waste
A) Landfills
B) Recycling
C) Incineration
2. Liquid Waste
A) Management Plans
B) Waste Water Treatment Facilities
C) Injection Wells
3. Hazardous Waste
A) Landfill
B) Incineration

B. Waste Management in Developing Nations
1. Solid Waste
A) Landfills
B) Recycling
C) Incineration
2. Liquid Waste
A) Management Plans
B) Waste Water Treatment Facilities
C) Injection Wells
3. Hazardous Waste
A) Landfill
B) Incineration
C. Waste Management: The Philippine Setting
1. Solid Waste Management
2. Liquid Waste Management
3. Hazardous Waste Management

II. Threats of Improper Waste Management
V. Initiatives for Liquid Waste Management

Review of Related Literature

I. Definition of Wastes

Waste can be described as "any substance or object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard", as defined by the Waste Framework Directive (European Directive (WFD) 2006/12/EC), (amended by the new WFD (Directive 2008/98/EC, coming into force in December 2010). In the Philippines’ Republic Act No. 9275 (An Act Providing For a Comprehensive Water Quality management and for Other Purposes), waste means “any material either solid, liquid, semisolid, contained gas or other forms resulting from industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, or from community and household activities that is devoid of usage and discarded.”

II. Classification of Wastes
The classification of wastes varies and depends country by country. Waste can be divided into many different types. The most common method of classification is by their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

1. Solid Waste
Solid waste is broadly defined as including non-hazardous industrial, commercial and domestic refuse including household organic trash, street sweepings, hospital and institutional garbage, and construction wastes; generally sludge and human waste are regarded as a liquid waste problem outside the scope of MSW (Zerbock, 2003).These are waste materials that contain less than 70% water. Example of this type of waste are the domestic or household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfield wastes such as drill cuttings.

2. Liquid Waste
These are usually wastewaters that contain less than 1%. This type of waste may contain high concentration of dissolved salts and metals. Liquid wastes are often classified into two broad types: sewage and toxic wastes. Generally, there are various types of liquid waste generated in urban centers: human excreta, domestics wastes produced in households, hospital wastes, industrial effluents, agricultural liquid wastes and nuclear wastes. When improperly handled and disposed of, liquid wastes pose a serious threat to human health and the environment because of their ability to enter watersheds, pollute ground water and drinking water (US EPA, 2009).

3. Sludge
It is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3% and 25% solid, while the rest of the material is dissolved water.

4. Hazardous Waste
Hazardous wastes are wastes which, by themselves or after coming into contact with other wastes, have characteristics, such as chemical reactivity, toxicity, corrosiveness or a tendency to explode, that pose a risk to human health or the environment. Hazardous wastes are generated from a wide range of industrial, commercial, agricultural, and to a much less extent, domestic activities. They may take the form of solids, liquids or sludges, and can pose both acute and chronic public health and environmental risks.

III. Waste Management
A. Waste Management in Developed Countries
Brought basically by their more developed industries and more advanced technology,...
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