Related Literature

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Chapter II
Review of Related Literature
This chapter presents the reviews of literature, which are related and relevant to the study. To obtain information for this study, the researcher used books and websites on the internet and copies of different theses.

Documentary films a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt in one fashion or another, to “document” reality. Although “documentary film” originally referred to movies shot on film stock, it has subsequently expanded to include video and digital productions that can be either direct-to-video or made for a television series. Documentary, works to identify a “filmmaking practice, a cinematic tradition, and mode of audience reception” that is continually evolving and is without clear boundaries. (http://www.wikipedia.org, 26,September 2012)

The word “documentary” was first applied to films of this nature in a review of Robert Flaherty’s film Moana (1926), published in the New York Sun on February 1926 and written by “The Moviegoer,” a pen name for documentarian John Grierson. In 1930’s, Grierson further argued in his essay First Principles of Documentary that Moanahad “documentary value.” Grierson’s principles of documentary were that cinema’s potential for observing life could be exploited in a new art form; that the “original” actor and “original” scene are better guides than their fiction counterparts to interpreting the modern world; and that materials “thus taken from the raw” can be more real than the acted article. In this regard, Grierson’s views align with Vertov’s contempt for dramatic fiction as “bourgeois excess,” though with considerably more subtlety. Grierson’s definition of documentary as “creative treatment of actuality” has gained some acceptance, though it presents philosophical questions about documentaries containing staging and reenactments.

Documentary practice is the complex process of creating documentary projects. It refers to what people do with media devices, content, form, and production strategies in order to address the creative, ethical, and conceptual problems and choices that arise as they make documentaries. (http://www.wikipedia.org) Environmental awareness

It is having knowledge of the surroundings, or world, beyond ones immediate place. Often educators and parents assume that children notice what they, the parents, see or understand what they know about their surroundings. This, however, is often not the case. Children are not naturally aware of their changing environment and often do not have the background that adults have to understand their environment. Environmental awareness needs to be taught. According to Eblen (1994) the word environment became a part of everyday language in the 1960’s and its meaning is far from clear. In fact, it has evolved and continues to evolve, in part due to an increase in specific knowledge but even more as a result of changes in the mood of the general public.

For Gore (1993), the term “environment” has to be defined since we cannot know the level of environmental awareness without first determining the structures, functions and dynamics of the environmental. Operationally, environment means the “circumstances, objects and conditions by which one is surrounded. It is the complex of physical, chemical factors that act upon an ecological community that ultimately determine its form and survival”.

Holbert, R. Lance Kwak, Nojin Shah, Dhavan V. Undertook a study entitled “Environmental concern, patterns of television viewing, and pro-environmental behaviors: integrating models of media consumption and effects”. The study of media and the environment is long standing within the field of mass communication, with researchers examining media treatment of the environment from a wide range of epistemological and theoretical perspectives. Empirical studies typically focus on the influence of public affairs content on individual-level environmental knowledge, attitudes, or...
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