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CHAPTER 2
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Related Literature
According to the study of The Economic Benefits of Investing in Early Learning by Eddie(2009) said that researchers documented the remarkable development of the brain in the first five years and the first few years of a child experiences will influence the way in which the brain is wired. The University of Illinois Board Of Trustees, states that ages 3-4 years of a child are the Preschool stage. They said that Preschoolers learn from their play. The studies have shown that preschoolers are actively developing skills, using language and expressing their needs. From the age of three a child can build towers from 6-9 blocks, express their feelings with words, and implement variety of activities. By the age of four preschoolers are very active and aggressive in their play, and their classification skills and reasoning ability are developing.

Educators and researchers alike have defined different learning styles for early childhood into 3 main categories these are the Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. Visual learners learn best by seeing, auditory learners learn best by hearing, and kinesthetic learners learn best by being physically involve. The study highlighted the importance of learning method to a child’s development. http://www.kidslearningisfun.com.au/Early-Learning/what-is-your-childs-learning-style.html

Children approach learning in many different ways. The study of Technology and Interactive media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs by The Fred Rogers Center (2012) observed that technology is a natural part of today’s early childhood experiences and today’s parenting. The integration of technology and interactive media along early childhood programs is built upon solid developmental foundations, and childhood educators are aware of both the challenges and the opportunities that the technology and media can give for the benefit of a child. However, technology must be balanced with a healthy dose of outdoor play, messy art, and other kinds of interactive hands-on experiences. (Stewart 2011).

Children and adults now have an access to an ever-expanding selection of screens on computers, tablets, smart phones, handheld gaming devices, portable video players , digital cameras, video recorders, and more. Screen time is the total amount of time spent in front of any and all of these screens (Common Sense Media 2011: Guernsey 2011c). There are concerns about whether young children should have access to technology and screen media in early childhood programs because there are conflicting evidence of technology in children’s development. The American Academy of Pediatrics, recommends limiting the amount of screen time for children under 2 years of age and no more than one to two hours of total screen time per day for children older than 2.

However, research findings remain divided and therefore can be confusing to educators and parents. Some children’s media researchers have found no evidence to support the belief that screen media are inherently harmful. The evidence from public broadcasting’s Ready To Learn initiative suggests that when TV shows and electronic resources have been carefully designed to incorporate what is known about effective reading instruction, they serve as positive and powerful tools for teaching and learning. In short, there are some educationally valuable Television shows, computer game, and other digital media, and there are some that are educationally worthless.

The amount of time children spend with technology and media is important (Christakis & Garrison 2009; Vandewater & Lee 2009), but how children spend time with technology must also be taken into account when determining what is effective and appropriate (Tandon et al. 2011).

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According to the developers, interactivity in e-book creates an experience that will enhance the user’s ability to engage in user interface, including the ways to...
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