HAY453 Assignment 1 - Regression
Student number: 6119123
Tutorial time: 1:30 pm Thursday
Tutor: Michele Bell
HAY453 Assignment 1 - Regression
Researchers were interested in factors that predict anxiety felt, in relation to collective hatred, by new migrants to Australia (Anxiety). Information was collected from 80 migrants who had integrated into Australian society in the previous 12 months about Anxiety as well as four other measures thought to be related to Anxiety. It was predicted that the level of racial abuse (Racial Abuse) experienced and the participants’ self esteem deﬁcit (Self Esteem) would be the best predictors of Anxiety. The usefulness of the CBT program efﬁcacy rating (CBT Efﬁcacy) and social identity score (Social Identity) in predicting Anxiety were also examined. Anxiety
Participants level of anxiety was measured with a seven item questionnaire. This questionnaire, on a scale from 1 = none of the time, to 5 = all of the time, asked about anxiety related to being subjected to collective hatred in Australia.
Participants answered questions about levels of racial abuse experienced (four questions on a ﬁve-point scale from 0 = none of the time, to 4 = all of the time). Social Identity
Participants level of social identity as a member of the Australian community was examined with ﬁve questions on a ﬁve-point scale from 0 = strongly disagree, to 4 = strongly agree with higher total scores indicating greater identiﬁcation as the in-group i.e. Australians. Self Esteem
Participants level of self esteem was examined with four questions on a three-point scale from 0 = none of the time, to 3 = all of the time with higher total scores indicating greater deﬁcits in self esteem.
The perceived efﬁcacy of a cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) group-based program undertaken by participants (seven questions on a ﬁve point scale from 1 = strongly disagree, to 5 = strongly agree with higher total scores indicating greater perceived efﬁcacy). Results
Standard linear regression was performed with SPSS (ver. 20) with a model using Anxiety as the criterion variable and Racial Abuse, Social Identity, Self Esteem, and CBT Efﬁcacy as the predictor variables. Results showed that this model explained 69% of the variability in Anxiety (R2 j = .69, F (4, 75) = 44.22, p < .001). Self Esteem was the most important predicad tor (b = .52, t(75) = 4.81, p < .001), CBT Efﬁcacy and Social Identity were also signiﬁcant predictors (b = .26, t(75) = 3.91, p < .001 and b = .22, t(75) = 2.46, p = .01, respectively) while Racial Abuse was not signiﬁcant in this four coefﬁcient model. In other words, it is anticipated that reported Anxiety would be higher for those participant who scored higher on the Self Esteem measure (i.e. greater deﬁciencies in self esteem), identiﬁed more as an Australian and rated the CBT program’s efﬁcacy higher.
The most important predictor in this model was Self Esteem, suggesting that a healthy level of self esteem acts as a buffer to Anxiety. Lower Social Identity i.e. not identifying as Australian, also lessened Anxiety. This can be understood as the distress felt by those who see being an Australian as important are more affected by the perceived opinions and actions of other Australians. Those who identify as other than Australian may simply care less about the opinion of Australians and feel less Anxiety as a result.
Higher Anxiety being predicted by higher CBT Efﬁcacy is more difﬁcult to explain. CBT as a therapy is designed to both remove negative affect like anxiety and replace errors in thinking like ’magnifying negatives’. One possible explanation is the presence of a mediating variable such as ’awareness of racism’ where the CBT program brings about greater awareness of the
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