The concepts of tourism are changed as the time and technology changed. For example, the new tourism is more diversity than the old tourism. In the new tourism, sustainable tourism is more important in the tourism industry. Sustainable tourism will balance environment, social-culture and economic together. Compare with other tourism, sustainable tourism is more notice the future development. For example, West Lake in Hangzhou, China is famous with lotus and fresh lake fish. In the past, the government and local people only take care the current benefits. The over-fishing and more living water polluted damage the lake ecological system. The government has to cost millions money annually to clean the lake currently. Now, the government recognised the sustainable tourism is important. The government make some regulation to protect fish resources in the lake and also have some regulation to control the water polluted. As the exampled described, the local government protect the lake environment, but the economic benefits was decreased. Especially, the local people who live by catch fish. Also, the local socio-cultural environment is always forgotten for balance the environment and economic aspects. To protect the socio-cultural is also important, especially in heritage tourism. For example, the value of Beijing’s socio-cultural. For Beijing, the local communities are more important than economic impacts when develop the tourism. Overall, sustainable tourism is purpose for future generation.
The purpose of PPT is to increase the benefits for poor people especially the economic benefits. Ashley et.al (2000) list four economic impacts for the poor people: Wages from formal employment; Earnings from selling goods, services, or casual labour (e.g. Food, crafts, building materials, guide services); Dividends and profits arising from locally-owned enterprises; Collective incomer. The PPT pilots in Southern Africa case is a successful case to prove the PPT has positive economic impacts for poor people in developing countries. The PPT Pilots project will increase the local business activities. When tourists travel there, they have to go shopping, eating, excursing, doing activities, and accommodating. Those tourists’ activities provide more opportunity for local restaurants, shopping Centre, bars and other entertainment premises. Furthermore, the case (Ashley, 2006) related that completion of the partnership lodge with the Mpukane community will create employment for 30 local staff, and could generate around R700, 000 per year in local wages. Maybe 30 jobs are limited for Southern African employment rate, but the total PPT project in Southern African can create lots of jobs for local people. Overall, there is lot of benefits for local people by PPT at Sun City. However, it also has few negative communities’ impacts for local. For example, the food provide for tourists is based on tourists habit.
Ashley, C. 2006, Pro-Poor Tourism Report No. 2, Facilitating Pro-Poor Tourism with the private sector, Lessons learned from ‘Pro-Poor Tourism Pilots in Southern Africa’, viewed in 22.07.2011, <http://www.propoortourism.org.uk/ppt_report2-0206.pdf>.
Ashley, C, Boyd, C & Goodwin, H 2000, ‘Pro-Poor Tourism: putting poverty at the heart of the tourism agenda’, viewed in 22.07.2011, <http://www.servicevolontaire.org/livres/51ypro_poor_tourism.pdf>.
Opportunity cost is one of economic impacts. It is a negative impact for tourism. According Wahab and Pigram (2005, p.61), they described if labor or land is used for tourism its social cost to an economy is its opportunity cost, or the lost opportunity of using its social cost to an economy is its opportunity cost. In my opinion, opportunity costs in tourism are people have to give up some other functions in order to develop local tourism industry. In the reading (Alister and Geoffrey, 1982), the author related a case for opportunity costs:...
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