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  • Topic: Wiley-Blackwell, John Wiley & Sons, Donald Schön
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The purpose of this assignment is to discuss the contribution of reflective practice for clinical nursing. Reflection has been defined as a way for individuals to “capture their experience, think about it, mull it over and evaluate” (Boud et al 1985: 19) Argyris and Schon (1974) suggest that practitioners often practice at less than effective levels because they follow routine. Johns (1995) implies that action can be taken through reflection to increase effectiveness in practice as reflection provides opportunities for self development as professionals and individuals (Hinchliff et al., 1993). Bishop and Scott (2001) believe Clinical nursing is fundamental to nursing practice, that it provides expertise that are used to bring high quality care to patient’s that is not likely to be provided by a lay person. During this assignment I will discuss Christopher Johns model of structured reflection and Donald Schon’s model of reflection on and in action and his coaching theory and other methods that contribute to the reflecting process.   I will identify how the models then relate to clinical practice and how nursing has changed.

Carper (1978) Identified that as individuals have different ways of thinking and knowledge differentiates it is some times helpful to refer to a framework to assist reflection. Johns et al   (2002)   built on Carper’s theory and constructed a model for structured reflection. His model has a series of cue’s that are set out in a logical order which prompt progression of thought and reflecting to be explored. (Johns 2000) This model is used for analysis of critical incidents as well as more general experiences. Over a period of time Johns has continually tested the adequacy of his model and has developed it. Similar to Johns model is The reflective Cycle (Gibbs 1988). This model guides the practitioner through the cycle which encourages the practitioner to describe a situation, analyse their feelings, evaluate experiences, and consider other options and what they would do if the situation arose again. (Palmer et al 1994) Both Johns and Gibbs models are forms of guided reflection. This form of reflection helps the reflector to go into more detail and pushes the practitioner to critically evaluate their practice. Bulman and Schutz (2004) acknowledge that critical analysis is a key skill in reflective practice as it allows practitioners to identify strengths as well as weaknesses. This type of reflection is beneficial for clinical nurses as it gives them structure ti their thinking and can guide them through a thoughtful process to achieve higher levels of reflection.  

Schon built a theory of reflection on and in action. Reflection in action is a process to help you influence what you are working on, while you are working on it. He also strongly believes that when in practice practitioners can learn from the experts around them through the artistry of coaching. Reflection on action is a retrospective process to help you reflect on things you have already done usually involving a critical incident, examining it to find new understanding of the incident and what can be done differently to improve practice. Although Schon considered reflection on action a useful tool for practitioners he concentrated on the theory of Reflection in action. Where education can combine teaching of applied science with coaching to equip professionals with the skills and knowledge within the realities of practice. (Schon 1987). Eraut (1994) criticizes Schons work, as Schon bases a large emphasis on Coaching from professionals. Eraut points out that not all professional practitioners make good coaches as while In action they are transferring expertise with no supporting evidence. Eraut goes on to suggest that that Schons reflection on action is less problematic and that one can extend their knowledge base more effectively by reflecting after an action has occurred. Johns model is more theory based and requires more...
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