Referent and Expert Power

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CNUR 833 Week 9 discussion question Summary Outline: Leadership

Read the following chapter :

Robbins, S.P., Coulter, M. & Langton, M. (2009). Management (9th Canadian ed.). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 12

Review Week 9 Presentation (Found in Course Materials under Weekly Presentations)

Focus on the following elements:

1. How leaders and managers differ.
• Develop vision and long term objectives, plans strategy and tactics • Exhibits leading Beauvoir. Acts to bring change in others congruent with long term objectives • Innovates for the entire organization

• Asks what and why to change standard practice
• creates vision and meaning for the organization
• uses transformational influence: induces change in values, attitudes, behaviour using personal examples and expertise • uses empowering strategies to make followers internalize values • status quo challenger and change creator

• engages in day to day care taker activities, maintain and allocate resources • exhibits supervisory behaviour : acts to make others maintain standard job behaviour • administers subsystems within organizations

• asks how and when to engage in standard practice
• uses transactional influence: induces compliance in manifest behaviour using rewards, sanctions and formal authority • relies on control strategies to get thing done by subordinates • status quo supporter and stabilizer

2. How various theories improve our understanding of leadership? • Trait theories- early research unable to find the difference leaders from non- leaders • Later research on the leadership process identified 7 traits associated with successful leadership- drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion • Behavioural theories identified 3 leadership styles- 1. autocratic style- centralized authority, low participation 2. democratic style-involvement, high participation, feedback 3. laissez-faire style- hands -off management

Leader behaviour

Research findings mixed results-
• no specific style was consistently better for producing better performance • employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader

4. How managers use power and trust to enhance leadership. For manager to lead, manger should have the leadership skill to empower and influence the team or individual to achieve organizational goals by building trust and using power effectively. There are 5 sources of leader power identified: POWER

1. Legitimate power and authority are the same. Leader in position power also likely to have reward and coercive power 2. Coercive power-leaders have the ability to punish or control e.g. employee’s suspension and demotion or assign unpleasant or desirable work to the workers. Followers react to the power out of fear and consequences for not compliance 3. Reward power- give positive benefits and rewards including anything that another person values e.g. money, favourable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues, and preferred work shifts or sales territories. 4. Expert power- influence based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. Managers depend on employees’ expert to achieve the organization’s goals due to jobs have become more specialized. 5. Referent power-based on desirable resources or personal traits. Develop out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person by modelling behaviour and attitudes after the individual

TRUST include 5 dimensions
1. integrity- honesty and truthfulness
2. competence- technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills 3....
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