Referencing: The Harvard System

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Centre for Excellence in Learning and Teaching

Referencing: The Harvard System
Use this sheet to help you:
FollowtheHarvardreferencingconvention • CiteonlinesourcesusingtheHarvardstyle

5minuteselftest
Whatisthedifferencebetweenin-textandbiobliographicalcitations? HowdoestheHarvardSystemdifferfromtheAPA? Howshouldyouciteinternetsources?

Thispublicationcanbecitedas:Davies,W.M.(2007),TheHarvard System,CentreforExcellenceinLearningandTeaching,Faculty ofBusinessandEconomics,theUniversityofMelbourne. http://fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt Further credits: Beaumont, T. (content changes and editing), Pesina,J.(designandlayout). Some,orallofthematerialinthishelpsheet,appearin:Martin Davies(2011),StudySkillsforInternationalPostgraduateStudents. Basingstoke,UK.:Palgrave,MacMillan.ISBN:140399580X.

fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt

The Harvard System
TheHarvardsystemofreferencingisverysimilartotheAPAsystemofreferencing(see CELT Booklet: Basic Referencing Using the APA System)buttherearesubtledifferencesin howthereferencelistiswritten:

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Ituses“and”not“&”betweenmultipleauthors Thepublishers’nameappearsbeforetheplaceofpublication,separatedbyacomma(in Theyearofpublicationneednotbeenclosedinparentheses(…)thoughitisonsome Allmajoritemsarefollowedbycommasandnotfullstops(asintheAPA) “pp”forinclusivepagenumbersaregivenforjournalarticlesinHarvard,butnotAPA. versionsofHarvard APAitisplaceofpublicationthenpublisherseparatedbyacolon“:”)

Sample Harvard Reference List
Abrami,P.C.,d’Appollonia,S.andRosenfield,S.1997,‘TheDimensionalityofStudent RatingofInstruction;WhatweKnowandWhatweDoNot’,inHigherEducation: HandbookonTheoryandResearch,vol.II,(edSmart,J.C.)AgathonPress,NewYork. Abrami,P.C.,Dickens,W.J.,Leventhal,L.andPerry,R.P.1980,’DoTeacherStandards forAssigningGradesAffectStudentEvaluationsInstruction?,’JournalofEducational Psychology,vol.72,pp.107-118. Boex,J.F.2000,’IdentifyingtheAttributesofEffectiveEconomicsInstructors:AnAnalysisof StudentEvaluationofInstructorData’,JournalofEconomicsEducation,vol.31,no. Summer,pp.211-226. Braskamp,L.A.andOry,J.C.1994,Assessingfacultywork:Enhancingindividualand institutionalperformance,Jossey-Bass,SanFrancisco. Cashin,W.E.1988,‘StudentRatingsofTeaching:ASummaryoftheResearch’,inIDEAPaper, vol.20,CenterforFacultyEvaluationandDevelopment,Manhattan,Kansas:Kansas StateUniversity. Cashin,W.E.1990,‘StudentsdoRateDifferentAcademicFieldsDifferently’,inStudents

RatingsofInstruction:IssuesforImprovingPractice:NewDirectionsforTeaching andLearning,vol.43,(edsTheall,M.andFranklin,J.)Jossey-Bass,SanFrancisco,pp. 113121.

Cashin,W.E.1992,’StudentRatings:TheNeedforComparativeData,’InstructionalEvaluation andFacultyDevelopment,vol.12,pp.1-6. Feldman,K.A.1989a,’TheAssociationbetweenStudentRatingsofSpecificInstructional DimensionsandStudentAchievement:RefiningandExtendingtheSynthesisofData fromMultisectionValidityStudies,’ResearchinHigherEducation,vol.30,pp.583-645. Feldman,K.A.1989b,’InstructionalEffectivenessofCollegeTeachersasJudgedbyTeachers themselves,CurrentandFormerStudentsColleagues,AdministratorsandExternal (Neutral)Observers,’ResearchinHigherEducation,vol.30,pp.583-645.

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fbe.unimelb.edu.au/celt

The Harvard System
Itisimportanttorealisethattherearetwokindsofcitationsneeded,whetheroneuses HarvardorAPA.Theseareintextcitationsandbibliographic(orreferencelist)citations. Botharenecessary....
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