Reference Guidelines

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Referencing using the Harvard System
When you have included information from published sources in your work, you must acknowledge this information fully and accurately by:  Identifying your sources, in a brief format, in the body of your written work (intext citation) Providing a detailed list of your sources in an alphabetical list at the end of your work (known as a reference list).



There are a number of officially accepted formats that can be used to reference your work. The University preferred referencing style is Harvard. Use the order and punctuation as shown in the examples below: In-text example BOOKS  Reference to author in text, just give year of publication in brackets after their name  No reference to author in text, include author/date in brackets  Page numbers must be included for direct quotations Books – one author According to Jarvis (2010), when adults return to education….. Book – two authors It is recommended when searching database that truncation symbols are used (Knight and Ruddock, 2008). Book – three or more authors In their analysis, Collier et al. (2009) recommend that... Edited Book The media can be harsh in their judgements against the police (Leishman and Mason, 2003). Electronic Book It could be argued that the witness plays one of the most crucial roles in a court of law (Wall, 2009). Reference list example BOOKS: use following format  Author(s) in format Surname, Initial/s  Year of publication (in round brackets)  Title (italics)  Edition (if not the first)  Place of publication: Publisher

Jarvis, P. (2010) Adult education and lifelong learning: theory and practice. 4th ed. London: Routledge.

Knight, A. and Ruddock, L. (2008) Advanced research methods in the built environment. Oxford: WileyBlackwell.

Collier, B.J., Bide, M.J., and Tortora, P.G., (2009) Understanding textiles. 7th ed. London: Pearson Prentice-Hall.

Leishman, F. and Mason, P. eds. (2003) Policing and the media. Portland: Willan Publishing.

Wall, W. (2009) Forensic science in court: the role of the expert witness. Dawsonera [online]. Available at:http://www.dawsonera.com.librouter.hud.ac.uk/de pp/reader/protected [Accessed 20 January 2011].

In-text example PRINTED JOURNAL ARTICLES  Reference to author in text, just give year of publication in brackets after their name  No reference to author in text, include author/date in brackets  Page numbers must be included for direct quotations Fashion is an important part of image (Twigg, 2010). ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLES  Reference to author in text, just give year of publication in brackets after their name.  No reference to author in text, include author/date in brackets  Page numbers must be included for direct quotations

Reference list example PRINTED JOURNAL ARTICLES  Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial/s  Year of publication (in round brackets)  Article title (in single inverted commas)  Journal title (italics)  Volume  Issue or part number  Page number/s (abbreviated to p./pp.) Twigg, J. (2010) ‘How does Vogue Negotiate Age?: Fashion, the Body, and the Older Woman’. Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. 14 (4), pp.471-490. ELECTRONIC JOURNAL ARTICLES  Author(s) in format: Surname, Initial/s  Year of publication (in round brackets)  Article title (in single inverted commas)  Journal title (italics)  Volume  Issue or part number  Page number/s (abbreviated to p./pp.)  [online]  Available from: database provider (if unsure put Summon http://library.hud.ac.uk/summon) OR if accessed freely on the web Available at:  URL  Date accessed (in square brackets)

Journal article – electronic from a database McMahon states that sex McMahon, N. (2010) ‘Sex discrimination in the discrimination is still rife in the workplace’. Caterer and Hotelkeeper. 200 (4647), workplace (2010). p.52 [online] Available from: Business Source Premier http://web.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed 21 January 2010]. Journal article...
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