How do we know what we know?
Errors in Inquiry
A Variable Language
Variables and Attributes
Variables Vs. Attributes (attributes make up the variable) (EX. Education/ high school, college, vocational, post graduate)
Specifications or relationships between variables.
Independent and Dependent Variables
(dependent variable depends on the independent variable)
Idiographic and Nomothetic Explanations
Idiographic : A list of all particular, singular reasons for a phenomenon or event, exhaustive, complete, detailed.
Nomothetic : The effort to identify a few causal
Induction and Deduction
Pick a topic
Look at prior research/what you already know
Build the structure of your research
Observe aspects of life around you
What are some patterns that you see
Research Wheel – pg. 53
Qualitative and Quantitative Data
Richness of interpretation, dense in description, think in verbal identification
Taking a phenomenon and quantifying it or making it numeric “measurable”
Allows one to aggregate, summarize, compare easily
What is a paradigm? Objectivity and Subjectivity Traditional Model of Science Figure 2-2, pg. 47 Terms used in Theory Construction Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction
Three Purposes of Research
Used to examine a new interest or a subject that is relatively new
Studies aim to describe situation and events
Explanatory studies address questions of why
Criteria for Nomothetic Causality
A statistical correlation between the two variables
The cause takes place before the effect
No third variable can explain away the observed correlation (nonspuriousness)
A relationship between two variables such that
Changes in one are associated with changes in another (correlation does not equal causation)
In an experiment, we can test this b using a control group
In non-experimental research, we can look at how a variable changes in response to changes in another variable.
Cause takes place before the Effect (Time Order)
Causal relationships require that the cause precedes the effect
Gender - attitudes towards legalization of abortion
Can involve more tan one independent variable
Gender & Race voting behavior
A relationship that isn’t genuine
A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable
There is an association between ice cream sales and electric bills
How ever, both of these things have more to do with temperature than each other.
Necessary and Sufficient Causes
condition that must be present for the effect to follow.
condition that, if present, guarantees the effect in question.
Causes that are both necessary and sufficient are the most satisfying outcome in research
Orientation of Time Studies
observation of a sample/cross-section of a population or phenomena that are made at one point
Hard to tell time order of events, feeling, and attitudes
Some variables are fixed (i.e, Race, Sex, Age)}
Subject to recall error
Permits observations of the same phenomenon over an extended period of time
Easier to determine time order (but not always)
Types of Longitudinal Studies (Time Studies)
A type of longitudinal study that examines change with in a population over time ( population growth in census)
Examines specific subpopulations, or cohorts, as they change over time / Event-based design- people who experienced...