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Chapter 1
How do we know what we know?
Experience
Tradition
Authority

Errors in Inquiry
Inaccurate Observation
Overgeneralization
Selective Observation
Illogical Reasoning

A Variable Language

Variables and Attributes
Variables Vs. Attributes (attributes make up the variable) (EX. Education/ high school, college, vocational, post graduate)

Causality
Specifications or relationships between variables.

Independent and Dependent Variables
(dependent variable depends on the independent variable)

Idiographic and Nomothetic Explanations
Idiographic : A list of all particular, singular reasons for a phenomenon or event, exhaustive, complete, detailed.

Nomothetic : The effort to identify a few causal

Induction and Deduction
Deductive
Pick a topic
Look at prior research/what you already know
Build the structure of your research
Inductive
Observe aspects of life around you
What are some patterns that you see
Field research

Research Wheel – pg. 53

Qualitative and Quantitative Data
qualitative Data
Richness of interpretation, dense in description, think in verbal identification
Quantitative Data
Taking a phenomenon and quantifying it or making it numeric “measurable”
Allows one to aggregate, summarize, compare easily

Chapter 2
What is a paradigm? Objectivity and Subjectivity Traditional Model of Science Figure 2-2, pg. 47
Terms used in Theory Construction Deductive and Inductive Theory Construction

Chapter 4
Three Purposes of Research
Exploration –
Used to examine a new interest or a subject that is relatively new
Description –
Studies aim to describe situation and events
Explanation
Explanatory studies address questions of why

Criteria for Nomothetic Causality
A statistical correlation between the two variables
The cause takes place before the effect
No third variable can explain away the observed correlation (nonspuriousness)

Correlation
A relationship between two variables such that
Changes in one are associated with changes in another (correlation does not equal causation)
In an experiment, we can test this b using a control group
In non-experimental research, we can look at how a variable changes in response to changes in another variable.

Cause takes place before the Effect (Time Order)
Causal relationships require that the cause precedes the effect
Gender - attitudes towards legalization of abortion
Can involve more tan one independent variable
Gender & Race voting behavior

Nonspuriousness
A relationship that isn’t genuine
A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables, shown to be caused by some third variable
There is an association between ice cream sales and electric bills
How ever, both of these things have more to do with temperature than each other.

Necessary and Sufficient Causes
Necessary cause-
condition that must be present for the effect to follow.
Sufficient cause-
condition that, if present, guarantees the effect in question.
Causes that are both necessary and sufficient are the most satisfying outcome in research

Orientation of Time Studies
Cross-sectional Studies
observation of a sample/cross-section of a population or phenomena that are made at one point
Hard to tell time order of events, feeling, and attitudes
Some variables are fixed (i.e, Race, Sex, Age)}
Subject to recall error

Longitudinal Studies
Permits observations of the same phenomenon over an extended period of time
Easier to determine time order (but not always)

Types of Longitudinal Studies (Time Studies)
Trend studies-
A type of longitudinal study that examines change with in a population over time ( population growth in census)

Cohort studies-
Examines specific subpopulations, or cohorts, as they change over time / Event-based design- people who experienced...
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