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LECTURE ONE:
HISTORY OF FOODSERVICE & CULINARY ARTS

Importance of History
➢ Helps us understand the present and the future
➢ Helps us understand why we do things as we do, how our cooking techniques have been developed and refined, and how we can continue to develop and innovate in the years ahead.

The Origins of Classical and Modern Cuisine
The history of foodservice is closely associated with travel. Throughout the history merchants have traveled extensively to trade with other nations or tribes. There were also the religious pilgrimages to places of worship. Invariably, in different places of destination food lodging have been provided to the travelers.

➢ During middle ages, the beginnings of foodservice was evident in the dining rooms of posting houses of the Romans as well as the inns & taverns of the English people ➢ Canterbury inn – with kitchen measuring 45 feet in diameter which provided food not only for the monks but also for the pilgrims who came into the abbey to worship ➢ Royal household in England – serving numerous guests around 150-200 guests were receive daily, and foodservice become necessity ➢ Northumberland household book – first known record book of scientific cost accounting

Robert Owen – known during industrial revolution in terms of providing meals at nominal prices in an effort to improve the working conditions of the workers in his mill o Father of modern industrial catering

Florence Nightingale – English nurse who pioneered in the hospital foodservice during Crimean war o Known to be efficient in organizing & managing the meals for the patients o Known to be the first hospital dietitian in the modern sense

Alexis Soyer – person who help her in the establishment of a hospital diet kitchen

Victor Hugo – person responsible in opening the formal school feeding program in England where in American school had followed eventually

Boulanger – Frenchman credited to open the first restaurant in USA (16th Century)

French Revolution (1789) great chefs were employed in the houses of the French nobility • At the end of monarchy, many chefs gets un employed and opened restaurants in and around Paris to support themselves

18th Century – changes on the organization of kitchen
▪ Stove (potager) – it give cooks a more practical and controllable heat source than an open fire

Commercial kitchen division:
1. rotisserie – under the control of the meat chef, rotisseur 2. patissier – the oven or under the control of the pastry chef

3. cuisinier – the stove run by the cook

Marie- Antoine Careme (1784-1833)
➢ he dedicated his career to refining and organizing culinary techniques ➢ His books contain the first systematic account of cooking principles, recipes and menu making.

➢ Works as chef to wealthy patrons, kings and head of state ➢ First real celebrity chefs, and he became famous as the creator of elaborate, elegant display pieces and pastries

➢ The ancestor of our modern wedding cakes, sugar sculptures, and ice and tallow carvings

Contributions;
• “Toque” – chef’s hat
• Recipe books
• Simplified Menus
• He replaced the service a la francaise (French) to service a la russe (Russian).

Pierre De La Varenne
• Refined French cookery from the Middle Ages
• Light dishes, simple presentations

Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846 to 1935 )
➢ The greatest chef of his time ➢ Father of the...
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