The international Red Cross and Red Crescent movement consists of the International Commitee of the Red Cross [ICRC], a group of up to 25 Swiss citizens,with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, the more than 160 national Red Cross societies; and the Geneva-based International federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent societies[known until 1993 as the league of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies] which coordinates peacetime activities of the national societies. The International conference of the Red Cross,usually held every four years in different countries, brings together representitives of the Red Cross organizations and those governments that have ratified the Geneva conventions. In 1986 the movement’s name was changed to include the Red Crescent, the organization’s name in most Muslim natons
Initiative for founding the Red Cross came from the 19th-century Swiss philanthropist Jean Henri Dunant. Apalled by the almost complete lack of care for wounded soldiers, he apppealed to the leaders of nations to found societies devoted to the aid of the wounded in wartime. Five Swiss citizens formed a commitee, which later became the ICRC, and issued a call for an International conference, which was held in Geneva in October 1863 and was attended by delegates from 16 nations.
Another conference was held in Geneva the following year, and offcial delegates of 12 nations signed...