Recruitment and Selection

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1.0Introduction
Recruitment and selection is a critical process for an organisation, it is because the mistake that occurs during the recruitment and selection can pass the costs to an organisation and detract the organisation effectiveness. Recruiting and hiring the people to the position where they can perform effectively is the objectives of an organisation (Dowling, et al, 1999).

Beaumont (1993) cited that there are three main issues that have increased the potential importance of the selection decision to organisation (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007): •The trend and changes of demographic in the labour market result in a more diverse workforce, thus, it increase the pressure on the notion of fairness in selection. •The need for a multi-skilled, flexible workforce and the emphasis on team working – individual behaviour and attitudes is more concerned. •The emphasis between corporate strategic and people management – links between selection processes and outcomes to an organisation goals.

In the Harvard Business Review, it indicated selection decision lead to 80 percent of turnover which is a costly mistake (the costs comprise money spent on recruitment, selection and training) (Meyer, 2008). Therefore, it is important to ensure the selection methods that used are appropriate to the jobs. Other than that, the performance of the managers often partially relies on their employees. Employees that employed to fill up the position with inappropriate skills and knowledge is an obstacle to improve the effectiveness of organisation.

Moreover, there is a legal compliance that the organisation needs to comply. Equal Employment Law (EEO) has introduced the laws of non-discrimination during selection process for protected groups (Dessler, 2005).

Thus, the selection process is increasingly important to help the organisation hire the employees with the right skills and knowledge that link to its position. The ethical issues in selection process are highly concerned. The issues include individual rights and privacy, the potential of abuse authority and control and unfair offer provided for different types of applicants (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007).

2.0Recruitment and Selection
Figure 1: The stages of recruitment and selection

(Bratton, J. and Gold, J. (2007) Human Resource Management – Theory and Practice, 4th Edition, Palgrave Macmillan, New York, p241)

The process of recruitment and selection are influenced by external and internal factors. Organisations can either internal recruiting or external recruiting based on the requirement of the positions (Griffin, 2003). After that, organisation can use various recruitment methods such as advertising, applicant forms, and websites and so on. The recruitment methods that used must be effective in attracting potential people. Subsequently, organisation can use various selection methods to select the right people to the position, thus, it can contribute to the organisation effectiveness. Finally, organisation can evaluate the effectiveness of the selection methods through job performance of the applicants (Bratton and Gold, 2007).

3.0Basic Testing Concept
Bratton and Gold (2007) pointed out effective selection process largely depends on its reliability and validity. •Reliability – refers to the consistency of the performance measure. There are various methods to test the reliability of the selection. •Validity – refers to the extent to which a selection technique actually measures what it supposes to measure that related to performance on the job. Furthermore, Neo, et al. (2003) added additional criteria to measure the effectiveness of selection process: •Generalisability – is known as the degree to which the validity of selection method established in one context extends to other contexts. It is because the test validity often extends across situations and subgroups. •Utility – is the extent to which the information presented by selection...
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