Recruitment strategies in an organisation are intended to identify suitable employees who fit well for the business (Ahmad & Schroeder, 2002). It is a very complex process that needs to be carried out correctly and if not; can incur substantial costs for the business. (Pets, 1997) acknowledges this and highlights that due to the upsurge in competitive pressure, HR managers are constantly looking for ways to develop and sustain performance within the organisation. Therefore, avoiding unwanted cost and keeping employee retention. This paper aims to analyse existing literature regarding the effectiveness of recruitment strategies used within a business. This includes identifying general practices organisations use to recruit and select employees as well as determining which recruitment and selection practices are most effective. Additionally, this paper will highlight how the practices listed will affect organisational outcomes. Internal/external recruitment along with different types of recruitment will also be presented.
Defining Recruitment and Selection
Ongori & Temtime (2010) defines recruitment and selection as a process which involves orderly steps that need to be followed in order for the business to attract the right individuals for the job. Ordanini & Silvestri (2008) suggests that recruitment and selection is a general label which includes various diverse activities. It is then these activities that each bring something different to the strategic management.
In addition, Recruitment and selection are the two main stages of the employment process and are both different but very similar topics. According to Clarke (2004) Recruitment can be seen as a positive process as it involves looking for potential candidates and encourages applications from employees whilst selection can be seen as a negative process as it involves shortlisting and screening candidates. However, Bergwerk (1988) illustrates that the selection part of the process can be seen as more important as it can identify who has the right experience or who can be a benefit to the organisation. In relation to this, Clarke (2004) argues that the recruitment importance should not be under estimated as the process of finding and employing individuals can be expensive and time consuming so it should be done properly to avoid any unnecessary risk to the organisation.
Stages in the Recruitment and Selection Process
Sparrow (2007) believes that the recruitment processes that most organisations usually practice are divided into 3 distinct stages. This involves staffing, attracting candidates and then selecting the desired employees from the candidates.
Clarke (2004) advocates the requirements for the staffing process. Clarke explains that a business plan should be set into place within the organisation, this is so it would be easier for them to work out how many people they may need to hire or what types of roles are available for the individual. Clark (2010) adds to the stages of the recruitment process and suggests that for one to attract the right candidates, job vacancies must be targeted to the right group of people. A good example of this is the CIPD professional magazine, for instance, if an organisation was looking for a Human resource manager they may advertise in this magazine as it targets those working in HRM.
Finally, the third stage according to Sparrow (2007) theory is selecting the candidates. Yakubovich & Lup (2006) define this stage as the most crucial. It is further illustrated that this is the stage where the requirements of the job role is matched against the candidates. There are a variety of ways for doing this; Clarke (2004) justifies this statement and suggests that face to face interviews and competency based selection tests are deemed to be effective whilst trying to match candidates to the job role. Yakubovich & Lup (2006) further...