IR 495 World Energy Politics Final Exam
Recommendations Report to Minister of Energy and Natural Resources and the Minister of Foreign Affairs
“Ever since the Industrial Revolution, energy and the need to secure it’s supply have been fundamental to any position of power in the world."
At the very start of my recommendation report, I would like to say something about importance of an energy as a full concept for a certain country. Without an energy production or sufficient resources we cannot mention about a development in certain country. Energy issue is also important for dependency level of a country to international resources; and because of that fact it is directly related with foreign policy - and actually shaped by foreign policies.
As a connector state of Asia and Europe continent, Turkey has magnificence importance. She both engaged with Middle Eastern and European cultures and this gives Turkey to unique position; while she create connections between European countries, she also cannot forget her Middle- Eastern neighbors.
To shows the important of an energy, I will continue with Harry Kissinger's (Minister of State and the National Security Advisor to the US President Nixon) words; "Control oil and you control nations; control food and you control the people." ( Kissinger, April 1974).
Here is Turkey's primary Energy consumption by resources ( % ) , end of 2010. In this graph we see the substantial amount of oil and gas consumption. This two sources together reach the 61.6 % of total Turkey's energy consumption. Unfortunately, Turkey uses renewable sources not efficiently, usage of wind-solar energy sources and hydro power cannot not exceed even 20% of total Turkey's energy consumption. Turkey actually has a great underground to use renewable energy sources because of her weather conditions but actually facilities for usage of these resources did not developed enough yet. On the other hand, we should consider the over import dependency of Turkey to Oil and Gas as a 92% and 98% . As I mentioned above, oil and gas were most important part of Turkey's energy consumption and dependency level of Turkey in terms of these sources are nearly 100% and actually this is a huge factor that shapes Turkish Foreign Policy. As a secondary level consumption, we also can see Hard-coal with 14,7 percent and Lignite 12,5 %.
In the graph above, we can see the Turkey's electricity generation by resources. Electricity consumption of Turkey by the data of 2010 was 210 billion kilowatt-hours- which is really huge amount of consumption. Although, nearly half of this consumption generated by Gas with 45.2 %. this high percentage of Gas usage on electricity should be considered with Turkey's high international dependency for Gas resources. In the second place we can see Hydro power with 25.2 % and Lignite with 17.5 . Also Turkey generates electricity with hard coal, fuel oil and other sources but with low amounts. [pic]
According to EPDK Natural Gas Sector Report (2010), we can see the Natural Gas Imports of Turkey in the graph above. At first scene, High gas import rate from Russia can be seen ( 46%). Second place we face with another strategically important country, Iran ( 21 % ). Especially in the period of cold war, Turkey decided to be in the United State's side and this situation leads to problems in relations and trade between two country. Although, Turkey must remain strategic and vulnerable relations to keep balance between her trade partners. Iran also a problematic country about her relations and behavior towards Europe. Turkey also imports gas from Azerbaijan( 12 % ), Algeria (10 % ) , Nigeria ( 3 % ) and spot resources ( 8 % ) . Azerbaijan and Turkey try to increase their partnership with new projects but Russia actually do not want this improved partnership because of her own benefits. [pic]
In the given graph above, there are gas import pipelines from...