* It is a technology that allows DNA to be produced via artificial means. * It is the joining together of DNA molecules from two different species that are inserted into a host organism to produce new genetic combinations that are of value to science, medicine, agriculture, and industry. * Since the focus of all genetics is the gene, the fundamental goal of laboratory geneticists is to isolate, characterize, and manipulate genes. Although it is relatively easy to isolate a sample of DNA from a collection of cells, finding a specific gene within this DNA sample can be compared to finding a needle in a haystack. HOW DOES DNA TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERS BACTERIAL GENES FROM CELL TO CELL?
This diagram will show the steps involved in the engineering of Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecule or the general diagram to illustrate the transfer of bacterial genes from cell to cell.
Gene Transfer between cells generally consists of the following steps:
* To isolate a gene, we must extract the cell’s DNA.
* A gene can be introduced into a cell using a vector. A vector is a vehicle by which a gene is transferred from one cell to another. * *A plasmid can be used as a vector. It is a circular DNA molecule found in some bacteria. * The vector must be extracted from the bacterium before it can be used as a vector. * Now we need to isolate the gene that we want from the DNA. For this we use reaction enzymes (known as biological scissors). These are molecules that cut DNA in specific places so we can isolate a specific gene. * The vector must be exposed to the same restriction enzyme, so that a gap in the circular DNA opens to combine with a new piece of a DNA (a gene). * The restriction enzyme cuts the same site on both molecules. The ends of the cut have an overhanging piece of single-stranded DNA. These are called “STICKY-ENDS”. * Now we must recombine the vector and the gene. The sticky ends are able to base pair with...