Plant Biotechnology Division, Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar 751 015, India
Received 5 March 1996
Various techniques have been developed which could help breeders to meet the demand of the cut flower industry in the next century. Available methods for the transfer of genes could significantly shorten the breeding procedures and overcome some of the agronomic and environmental problems which would otherwise not be possible through conventional methods. On the other hand, nutritional requirements (mineral nutrients), carbohydrates and other organic compounds (vitamins, amino acids, etc), environmental factors (e.g. light, gaseous environment, temperature and humidity) and treatments with growth regulators have helped in achieving high proliferation rates to allow commercially viable micropropagation. An overview of the regeneration of chrysanthemum by direct and indirect organogenesis, embryogenesis from explains and embryo rescue is presented in this article. In addition, the use of these techniques in association with several biotechnological methods to enrich the genome of chrysanthemum, such as selection of somaclonal variants, screening for various usetul characteristics and genetic transformation, is reviewed. © 1997 Elsevier Science B.V.
Keywords: Plant biotechnology; Gcnetie transformation; Regeneration; Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)
Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora) is one of the most important cut flowers and pot plants grown in many parts of the world. The commercial cultivars are usually propagated vegetatively through cuttings and suckers. Breeding programmes have focussed on improving various characteristics to enhance the ornamental value, including the colour, size and form of the flower, production quality and reaction to the environment (Broertjes et...