Reading theories Of the two approaches mentioned in reading research and literature, the bottom-up approach focuses on language elements such as grammar, vocabulary and cohesion, while the top-down approach includes a focus on background knowledge about content and organization, generally referred to as content and formal schemata respectively. A combination of these two approaches is generally known as the Interactive Model of Reading. The pedagogy in this study was based on the Schema Interactive Model of Reading (Simonsen and Singer, 1992).7 able 1: Approaches and strategies Approaches Top Down Strategies # Generating questions from title Skimming questions Bottom Up for content, based generated# Skimming # on for
writer’s thesis # Guessing meanings of words from context (vocabulary) use of modals, tenses Schema discourse) Interactive (text as # Concepts of cohesion and coherence and connections between paragraphs Text purpose and purpose at paragraph level # the # Understanding how language functions in context. E.g.
Metaphorical models of reading
Specific models of reading
Bottom-up models Top-down models Interactive models
Interactive compensatory model( nature inner knowledge) if there’s lack u should compensate it Word recognition model Simple view of reading model Dual coding model (2languages) Psycholinguistic guessing game: activate prior knowledge ..student is giving an aim for reading
Reading strategies : .specifying a purpose for reading Planning what to do and what steps to take Previewing the text Predicting the contentes of the text or section of text Reflecting on what has been learned from the text Checking prdictions Posing questions about the text Finding answers to posed questions Connecting test to background knowledge Summarizing infor Makin interferances Connecting one part of the text to another Paying attention to text structure Rereading Guessing the meaning of new word from...
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