Face-Negotiation theory was developed by Stella Ting-Toomey in 1985. It is a theory that explains why members of two different cultures manage conflict differently. Ting-Toomey asserts that different cultural values exist in dealing with conflict, and these conflictual episodes, in turn, are influenced by the face concerns and face needs of communicators. The differences in cultures, distinguishing between individualistic and collectivistic orientations, or what is termed high-context and low-context cultures are the conflict that have in two different cultures. Ting-Toomey separates cultures into two groups, low-context cultures likes United States and high-context cultures in eastern countries example Japan. Low-context individualistic cultures value spoken words in a conversation, assertiveness, and honesty while high context collectivist cultures believe every action and decision affects the group. This show that people from collectivistic or high context cultures are noticeably different in the way they manage face and conflict situations different from individualistic or low-context cultures. Ting-Toomey also describes how cultures use face concern that whose face do you protect or taking care not to embarrass other in public and face need that is autonomy or inclusion. She states that collectivistic culture individuals would save their own face and wants autonomy likes privacy and space, while individualistic cultures would be more concerned with trying to save the face of the opposing person and value inclusion that respect and approval. There are four faces of face according to Ting-Toomey. The two faces used more predominately in low-context cultures include face-restoration and face-saving, which involve giving freedom and space to yourself and others. While, high-context cultures prefer to use face-assertion and face-giving as techniques for conflict by defending the need of inclusion for yourself...
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