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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

Graduate Coursework Accountability Statement (To be completed by student)

ACADEMIC YEAR: 2013/2014 SEMESTER: 2

COURSE CODE: EDLS6501 TITLE: Online Text Activity One

NAME: Michelle Thompson ID: 312500212

1. I hereby certify that I am the author of the attached item of coursework and that all materials from reference sources have been properly acknowledged. 2. I understand what plagiarism is and what penalties may be imposed on students found guilty of plagiarism. 3. I certify that this paper contains no plagiarized material. 4. I certify that this is my own work and that I did not receive any unfair assistance from others (including unauthorized collaboration) in its preparation. 5. I certify that this paper has not previously been submitted either in its entirety or in part within the UWI system or to any other educational institution. 6. In the case of group work:

a. I certify that the individual work of each member of the group has been clearly indicated; b. that where no such indication has been given, I take the responsibility for the work as if it were the section of the paper for which I am solely responsible; and c. that I have not collaborated with any members of the group to breach the University’s regulations.

Signature: M. Thompson

Date: February 25, 2013

Children of the 21st century will face many challenges that will require them to use reading in different forms. As we begin the new millennium, research- based approaches to teach reading and writing is being relied upon to drive students towards the ultimate goal. Literacy for all, understanding how children learn, particularly how they learn to read and write influences the instructional approaches taken in homes as well as classrooms. Adams (1990) defines Phonological awareness as an awareness of sounds and the ability to revealed tasks such as rhyming, matching sounds, deleting sounds, blending or segmenting sounds. Because these sounds are spoken words they require testing to manipulate phonological segments. This is required to determine the performance of good readers and poor readers. Depend on the result one can determine which elements of phonological awareness are absent or reliable for both readers. He further articulate that they are five levels of difficulty in phonological awareness these are Awareness of rhyme and alliteration, comparing and contrasting the sounds of words for rhyme and alliteration, blending and splitting syllables, full segmentation of component phonemes and adding deleting and moving phonemes. In addition to these five levels of difficulty is the importance of phonological development. Phonological development is the key to phonological awareness. Proctor and Compton (2004) babies are not born with the full range of adult perceptual abilities, which include the five senses vision, hearing, smell, taste and touch. However, these abilities develop greatly within the first year of life. Newborn babies can only process sensory information and their understanding of sight, sound and touch stimuli develop rapidly as they grow. This leads to cognitive development which, in turn lays the foundation for language development. In preschool years, a child develops phonological skills, these skills acquired in a largely unconscious, or implicit fashion that is to say, even though the child may be able to produce certain vowels, consonants and consonant clusters he or she has not explicit awareness of doing so. Phonological awareness is so called because the child becomes explicitly aware of the phonology being taught and has the conscious ability to detect and manipulate phonological units. It is important to note that phonological awareness is a subset of the larger set of skills known as phonological processing. Phonological...
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