Background of the Study
In the Philippines, forests and woodlands cover about 7,168,400 hectares (http://forestry.denr.gov.ph). These forests have unique environmental and biodiversity values, and make available a wide range of products for subsistence use. The most predominant use of wood is in the form of firewood and charcoal by the majority of Filipinos in both rural and urban areas. Firewood is preferred in rural areas simply because it is obtainable free of charge. Charcoal is preferred in urban areas on account of its being cheap, easy to transport, distribute and store. It is almost smokeless and has higher calorific value A(30 MJ/kg) than firewood (15MJ/kg). But according to the U.N. FAO (2003), the woodlands have experienced highest rates of degradation and deforestation compared to other cover classes. This could be attributed to selective cutting for timber and clear felling of trees for both charcoal production and cultivation. Charcoal production is responsible for degradation and deforestation.Between 1990 and 2010, the Philippines lost an average of 54,750 ha or 0.83% of forested area per year. Charcoal production and cultivation have an impact on large-scale deforestation that has occurred in the area between 1991 and 1998.
Philippine Government is also in trouble as environmental sanitation is concerned. Waste materials in markets or even in public places continually piled up every other day when it is not fetched by a garbage truck. These waste materials are primarily composed of coconut shells in markets, wastepaper in schools and offices, rice hulls in agricultural remains and sawdust, a waste product produce in the lumber shops. This study was conducted to reduce the percentage breakdown of deforestation which would soon contribute to the prevalent global warming. Since waste materials such as coconut shells, rice hulls, sawdust and wastepaper are totally organic and may seem useful at times, we came up on using it as a primary component in making Biofuel at varying formulations. This way, the researchers can help in preserving the environmental balance of the ecosystem and at the same time, to come up with a cheap, easy-drying and a highly combustible fuel for household fuel – The Biofuel Pellets.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine whether different formulations of coconut shells, rice hulls, sawdust and wastepapercan be a viable source of Biofuel in the form of Pellets. Specific Objectives:
This study specifically aimed to answer the following inquiries: 1. To determine the heating values of each raw materials to be used in making the biofuel pellets. 2. To determine the heating values of the biofuel pellets at varying coconut shells: rice hull: sawdust: wastepaper ratios and the wood charcoal as the positive control. 3. To determine if there is a significant difference on the heating value of Formulation 1, Formulation 2, Formulation 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 4. To determine the relationship between the size and the heating value of varying formulations and the positive control. 5. To determine the boiling time of biofuel pellets when biofuel pellets at varying formulations and wood charcoal are used as fuels. 6. To determine if there is a significant difference on the boiling time of Formulation 1, Formulation 2, Formulation 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 7. To determine the relationship between the size and the boiling time of varying formulations and the positive control. 8. To determine the density of biofuel pellets at varying formulations and the wood charcoal. 9. To determine if there is a significant differenceon the density of Formulation 1, Formulation 2, Formulation 3, Formulation 4 and the positive control. 10. To determine the relationship between the size and the density of varying formulations and the positive control.
Hypothesis of the Study
This study aimed to...
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