Rational Use of Antibiotics

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What is an antibiotic?

Antibiotics are drugs which kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms, thereby curing infections in humans, animals and sometimes plants. The day to day is the term used to refer to antibacterial which are only indicated for the treatment of bacterial infections, there is more than 15 classes of drugs that differ in chemical structure and activity against bacteria. A certain antibiotics may be effective against one or various bacteria.

These drugs should not be used and are not effective against viruses, which are the main agents of community infections (colds, flu). It is however necessary antibiotics in the case of bacterial infections such as pneumonia and meningitis. In these situations their use is essential.

What problems are associated with antibiotics?

While control bacterial infection, antibiotics may have other undesirable effects:

-Side effects such as allergy, diarrhea, nausea. Most side effects are not serious, but are described deaths associated with severe allergic reactions to antibiotics.

-Death of commensal bacteria that live in the bowel and gynecological unit, which may lead to the development of candidiasis or diarrhea.

-Interaction with the usual pharmaceuticals, or reducing the effectiveness of these antibiotics. The best known example is the decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives (the pill) with the concomitant use of antibiotics.

-The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.

What is antibiotic resistance?

The bacteria are antibiotic-resistant when they lose their ability to kill or inhibit their growth. Resistant bacteria survive in the presence of the antibiotic, continue to multiply and cause disease more prolonged, severe and even death. These situations require heightened scrutiny and more expensive antibiotics and with more side effects.

What is the main cause of bacterial resistance?

The resistance is obtained by modification of genes of bacteria. The...
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