Lesson Guide for Chapter 7: Ratio and Proportion
Write a proportion problem. Design the problem so that the solution is “Leslie would need 16 gal ofgasoline in order to travel 368 mi.” -Leslie drove from her house to the grocery store last monday the grocery store is 2.875 miles away from her house. She used 1/4 gallon of gas driving to the grocery and back home. At this rate how many gallons of gas would she use to drive to her parents house who lives 368 miles away? --I am not sure that I understand the question fully but I am going to give it a try:Leslie is planning on visiting her sister who lives 368 miles away. The car that Leslie is planning on driving to visit her sister tank only holds 16 gallon of gas. Leslie’s car gets 23 miles per gallon. How many times will Leslie need to stop to fill up? Crystal

Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two ways in which learning occurs in some animals, including humans. Provide one example of each type of conditioning from your own life. Explain step-by-step how the conditioning occurred. What would it take to unlearn this behavior? Top of Form Question 1

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You are a pronounced behaviorist. Which statement most closely aligns with your beliefs? -------------------------------------------------

| | Latent learning occurs without any direct reinforcement.| | | Operant conditioning uses consequences that the organism thinks are annoying or satisfying.| | | Learning includes not only changes in behavior, but also changes in thoughts and expectations.| | | Observable events and acts are the focus of psychological research.| 20 points

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You are seeking to perform an experiment very similar to that of Pavlov. You begin by placing some drops of milk onto a cat's tongue, and you notice that she begins to salivate. After several trips to the lab, the cat begins to salivate after...

...Ratio and Proportion
• If 2 numbers are in ratio a: b then consider them as ax and bx (where x is the proportionality constant) and apply ax and bx in the given condition of the problem to proceed for answer
• Ratio can be applied between 2 units if and only if the same physical quantity is compared
• Length : length is correct
• Length : density is wrong
• Ratio can be made only after the units are compared in the same unit
• If two lengths are 1 mile and 1 km respectively then ratio 1:1 is incorrect.
• It should be 1.6:1 = 16:10 = 8:5 being converted to km
• Ratio of a to b = a : b = a / b where a and b are the terms of ratio wherein a = first term = antecedent and b = second term = consequent
• In a problem, to maintain the same ratio, if the antecedent is multiplied / divided by an integer / fraction then the consequent must be multiplied / divided by the same integer / fraction
• Ratio is expressed in lowest terms.
• As every number corresponds to its part in ratio, it is involved so the number of unit differences in the ratio, expressed in lowest terms, corresponds to the actual difference of true figures. Hence similar is with the aggregate values.
• If a number is to be proportionately changed in a given ratio then the antecedent refers to the given number....

...Solving Proportions
Problem 1
Bear population. To estimate the size of the bear population on the Keweenaw Peninsula, conservationists captured, tagged, and released 50 bears. One year later, a random sample of 100 bears included only 2 tagged bears. What is the conservationist's estimate of the size of the bear population?
I think using a simple ratio equation would work here,
let b = bear population
=
cross multiply
2b = 50*100
2b=5000 divide 2 by 5000
5000 =b
2
b=2500 answer
Problem 2
For the second problem in this assignment I am asked to solve this equation for y. The first thing I notice is that it is a single fraction (ratio) on both sides of the equal sign so basically it is a proportion which can be solved by cross multiplying the extremes and means.
y-1 = -3 this problem is a proportion
x+3 4
y-1 (x+3 = -3 (x+3) multiply both sides by x+3 – using the extreme means
x+3 4 property
y-1= -3x+3 add 1 to 3. A number that appears to be a solution but causes 4 0 in a denominator is called an extraneous solutions
y=-3x+4
4 answer
The form of equation I ended up with in problem 10 would be a linear equation. I noticed that the coefficient of x is different than the original problem is that x+3 and in my problem it is -3x/4. I could solve the problem by cross multiply...

...The Golden Ratio: Natures Beautiful Proportion
At first glance of the title, many may wonder: What is the Golden Ratio? There are many names the Golden Ratio has been called including the Golden Angle, the Golden Section, the Divine Proportion, the Golden Cut, the Golden Number et cetera, but what is it and how is it useful for society today? One may have heard of the number π (Pi 3.14159265…) but less common is π’s cousin Φ (Phi 1.61803399…). Both Φ and π are irrational numbers, meaning they are numbers that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two whole numbers as well as the fact that they are never-ending, never-repeating numbers. The Golden Ratio is the ratio of 1:Φ (1.61803399…). The Golden Ratio is a surprising ratio that is based on the research of many composite mathematicians spanning over 2300 years, and it is found in many areas of everyday life including art, architecture, beauty and nature.
Euclid, a Greek mathematician who taught in Alexandria around 300 B.C., was one of the first to discover and record the bases for the Golden Ratio back 2300 years ago. Euclid’s discovery was that if one takes a line and divide it into two unequal sections in such a way that the longer section is the same proportion to the shorter section as the entire line is to the longer section then one will get the...

...Proportions in mathematics can be viewed from a few perspectives. For instance, the proportionality of two variable values is determined by checking if one of the values is the product of the other value and some constant. In other words, two variable values (numbers or quantities) are proportional if their ratio is a constant, called the coefficient of proportionality or the proportionality constant. This is best explained using the linear equation:
y = k*x
If k is a constant quantity, x will always be proportional to y for every possible value. Then k is considered to be the coefficient of proportionality.
Proportion is also the name we use when describing the equality of two ratios. If the ratios in question are equal, we say that they are proportional. For example, we have two ratios here:
5/6 = 15/18
These ratios are proportional because when we multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the ratio 5/6 by 3, we get 15/18 as a result. That is also true for the other way around – if we simplify the second ratio by dividing its numerator and denominator by 3, we get the first ratio as a result. Let us try another example:
2/3 = 8/9
As you can see, this equation is not valid – 8 is the product of 2 times 4 and 9 is the product of 3 times 3. That means that these ratios are not proportional. If we wanted...

...
CASE BASED SYNOPSIS
ON
HOW EXACTLY HAVE COMPUTERIZATION AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY LOWERED COSTS AT CHEVRON AND MERCK ?
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPANIES
Chevron Corporation
Chevron Corporation is an American multinational energy corporation. Headquartered in San Ramon, California, and active in more than 180 countries, it is engaged in every aspect of the oil, gas, and geothermal energy industries, including exploration and production; refining, marketing and transport; chemicals manufacturing and sales; and power generation. Chevron is one of the world's six "super major" oil companies; as of 2013, it ranked eleventh in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies.
Operations
Upstream
Chevron's oil and gas exploration and production operations are primarily in the US, Australia, Nigeria, Angola, Kazakhstan, and the Gulf of Mexico. As of December 31, 2010, the company had 10.545 billion barrels (1.6765 billion cubic metres) of oil-equivalent net proved reserves. Daily production in 2010 was 2.763 million barrels per day (439.3 thousand cubic metres per day).
In the United States, the company operates approximately 11,000 oil and natural gas wells in hundreds of fields occupying 4,000,000 acres (16,000 km2) across the Permian Basin, located in West Texas and south eastern New Mexico. In 2010, Chevron was the fourth largest producer in the region. In February 2011, Chevron celebrated the production of its...

...Ratio decidendi and obiter dicta
Learning objectives
At the end of this module, you will be able to:
* distinguish between ratio decidendi and obiter dicta.
* apply well-established rules to identify the ratio decidendi in a decision.
This module is intended as a useful exercise in revision. If you are certain that you understand how to discover the ratio in an opinion, you should skim lightly over this material.
What is the ratio decidendi?
As you probably recall from your studies, the term ratio decidendi is a Latin phrase which means the "the reason for deciding". What exactly does this mean? In simple terms, a ratio is a ruling on a point of law. However, exactly what point of law has been decided depends on the facts of the case.
| The importance of material facts As Goodhart A L (1891–1978) pointed out long ago in the 1930s, the ratio is in pratical terms inseparable from the material facts. Goodhart observed that it "is by his choice of material facts that the judge creates law". By this Goodhart meant that the court's decision as to which facts are material or non-material is highly subjective, yet it is this inital decision which determines a higher or lower level of generality for the ratio. Goodhart's reformulation of the concept of the ratio was the subject of heated debate, particularly in the 1950s....

...Ratio Analysis
Ratio analysis is basically used to understanding the financial health of a business entity. With the help of ratios we can easily calculate from current year performance of the companies and are then compared to previous years. Ratio analysis conducts a quantitative analysis of information in a company’s financial statements. These Ratios are most commonly used in banking sector can be divided into five main categories
Liquidity Ratios
Leverage Ratios
Profitability Ratios
Activity Ratios
Market Ratios
A) Liquidity Ratios
Liquidity Ratios are used to determine a company's ability to meet its short terms obligations.
These include;
1) Current Ratio
2) Acid Test Ratio
3) Working capital
Current Ratio
What Does Current Ratio Mean?
A liquidity ratio that measures a company's ability to pay short-term obligations. Also known as "liquidity ratio", "cash asset ratio" and "cash ratio".
OR
It is a measure of general liquidity and is most widely used to make the analysis for short term financial position or liquidity of a firm. It is calculated by dividing the total of the current assets by total of the current liabilities.
Formula = Current Assets / Current Liabilities...

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