MANPOWER ECONOMICS ASSIGNMENT
Population can be defined as the number of people living in any defined area at any given time. Hence the population of Nigeria consists of all the people who live in the country at any given time (Dictionary of Economics, 1998; Ojo, 1997). Population however cannot be treated in isolation without a serious consideration for the characteristics (demographic distribution) of the population which is a pre-requisite for an effective and efficient manpower planning which will enhance human resource development and of course effective human resource utilization. The demographic distribution of any population include: age, sex, educational attainment urban-rural distribution e.t.c.
According to Todaro and Smith (2006), the world population was estimated to be about 6.1 billion and by the United Nation projections, it was placed at 9.2 billion by 2050 before reaching a maximum of 11billion by year 2200. It was asserted that over 90% of the projected population will be living in the developing world. These projections show a rapid population growth which call for a serious concern mainly in the developing nations. Should the above projections be real, it will in no little way affect the following social-economics indices: levels of living, national and personal esteem and freedom of choice which are significant in realizing optimum manpower utilization and consequently economic development.
THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
There are two major theories on population. These theories include: the Malthus Thomas Robert theory and the Demographic Transition theory. The Malthusaian theory postulated that population had a natural growth rate described by geometric progression whereas the natural resources necessary to support the population grew at a rate similar to arithmetic progression. He thus asserted that without restraints, there would be a continued pressure on living standards, both in terms of room and of output. Consequently, he advocated moral restraint on the size of family via birth control like abortion,
prostitution, celibacy, and delayed marriage (Preventive Checks) else the nature will take over the reduction process by itself through war, famine, pestilent which may be considered as natural disasters -Positive checks (Dictionary of Economics, 1998, Ojo 1997).Reverend Malthus was however criticized for been short-sighted having base his theory on the situation in Great Britain, the existing medical advancement at that time and the improvement in technology which are capable of expanding the production frontier. This theory is of great relevance in Nigeria and in the developing world at large as high population growth has become central to the development strategies in these countries. The Demographic Transition Theory is based on the changes from one stationary state to another. This theory divides the path to population growth into four major phases: The stationery stage known as the primitive agrarian or traditional economy, the transitional stages (2&3) and the post transitional stage. At the stationary stage, death rates and birth rates are high. At the transitional stages, mortality rate and birth rate falls. At post transitional stage, both death and birth rates are almost at pal and the aggregate population tends to stabilize as a low natural growth is established. This theory is more relevant to the less developed countries due to their high fertility rates, declining mortality and low gross national product /per capital income. (Ojo , 1997).
STRUCTURE OF THE NIGERIA POPULATION
Lack of adequate, up to date and reliable data gathering, processing, administration and recording has being the bane of monitoring the nation’s population growth trend. Sequel to this, the data from...