Rain Water Harvesting

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Rainwater Harvesting

Introduction
It was very difficult to imagine few decades before that you will require to buy drinking. The use value of water was never undermined, but it’s about time that even its exchange value is given due importance. Fresh water today is a scarce resource, and it is being felt the world over. More than 2000 million people would live under conditions of high water stress by the year 2050, according to the UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), which warns water could prove to be a limiting factor for development in a number of regions in the world. About one-fifth of the world’s population lacks access to safe drinking water and with the present consumption patterns; two out of every three persons on the earth would live in water-stressed conditions by 2025. Around one-third of the world population now lives in countries with moderate to high water stress—where water consumption is more than 10% of the renewable fresh water supply, said the GEO (Global Environment Outlook) 2000, the UNEP’s millennium report. Pollution and scarcity of water resources and climate change would be the major emerging issues in the next century, said the report. These issues would be followed by problems of desertification and deforestation, poor governance at the national and global levels, the loss of biodiversity, and population growth, said the report - The Observer of Business and Politics, 12

HYDROLOGICAL CYCLE
The term water harvesting is understood to encompass a wide range of concerns, including rainwater collection with both rooftop and surface runoff catchment, rainwater storage in small tanks and large-scale artificial reservoirs, groundwater recharge, and also protection of water sources against pollution. The objective of water harvesting in India differs between urban and rural areas. In urban areas, emphasis is put on increasing groundwater recharge and managing storm water. On the other hand, in rural areas securing water is more crucial. There the aim is to provide water for drinking and farming, especially for life-saving irrigation, and to increase groundwater recharge. Rooftop / Runoff Rainwater Harvesting for Artificial Recharge to Ground Water. Water harvesting is the deliberate collection and storage of rainwater that runs off on natural or manmade catchment areas. Catchment includes rooftops, compounds, rocky surface or hill slopes or artificially prepared impervious/ semi-pervious land surface. The amount of water harvested depends on the frequency and intensity of rainfall, catchment characteristics, water demands and how much runoff occurs and how quickly or how easy it is for the water to infiltrate through the subsoil and percolate down to recharge the aquifers. Moreover, in urban areas, adequate space for surface storage is not available, water levels are deep enough to accommodate additional rainwater to recharge the aquifers, rooftop and runoff rainwater harvesting is ideal solution to solve the water supply problems.

ADVANTAGES OF RAINWATER HARVESTING
To meet the ever increasing demand for water. Water harvesting to recharge the groundwater enhances the availability of groundwater at specific place and time and thus assures a continuous and reliable access to groundwater. To reduce the runoff which chokes storm drains and to avoid flooding of roads. To reduce groundwater pollution and to improve the quality of groundwater through dilution when recharged to groundwater thereby providing high quality water, soft and low in minerals. Provides self-sufficiency to your water supply and to supplement domestic water requirement during summer and drought conditions. It reduces the rate of power consumption for pumping of groundwater. For every 1 m rise in water level, there is a saving of 0.4 KWH of electricity. Reduces soil erosion in urban areas

* The rooftop rainwater harvesting is less expensive, easy to construct, operate and maintain. * In...
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