Railways and Logistics

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CONTENTS
1.INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………3 2.LOGISTICS
2.1.Brief history of Logistics……………………………………………….4 2.2.Logistics and transportation modes…………………………………...4 3.RAILWAYS
3.1.Railway history…………………………………………………………6 3.2.Railway intermodal comparison………………………………………7 3.3.Importance of railways in the Logistics Chain……………………….7 3.4.Multimodal transportation, hub ports & the future…………………8 4.CONCLUSION……………………………………………………….10 5.BIBLIOGRAPHY...........................................................11

INTRODUCTION
Logistics are a very important factor in a county’s economy and helps in many ways the ones who actually are capable to manage it properly. Trains and railways are part of the logistics chain and have played their part in the history of the world for many years. In this paper we are going to discuss its origins along with evolution and what the future holds for logistics and railways.

Logistics

2.1. Brief history of Logistics

Logistics as a business is a fairly new science, with the first steps being taken in the early 1950s. The reason for this was the increasing demand for materials to be shipped from all around the world, the changes in consumer demand patterns and the need for high availability and variety of products. Also the costs had a pressure on industries, as did the progress in computer technology and of course there was the influences of military experience .Some one had to be in charge of the supply chain supervising all procedures. This way the right item would be at the right amount at the right time at the right place at the right price. Covering the flow from the raw material to the finished product that the consumer receives. Including warehousing, purchasing, inventory transportation, management, consultation and the organizing and planning of these activities. Logistics has its origin from the Greek word “logos” (λόγος) which means “ratio, word, calculation, reason, speech, oration”. It is believed that the idea of logistics has evolved from military's need to supply themselves as they moved forward from their base. In ancient Greece, Rome and Byzantium there were military officers who were responsible for financial and supply distribution matters with the title ‘Logistikas’. In business world, external important factors such as oil crisis, growing competition, and increasing customer demands made logistics a management issue, making it eventually the top level issue. Then the forming of alliances, partnerships and cooperation became a management strategy as well as a research area turning logistics to what it is today.

2.2. Logistics and transportation modes

Logistics uses three main carriages of goods, by sea, by air and by land, which makes airplanes, ships, trains and trucks the main distributors. Until a few decades ago every single one of them would not collaborate with the others due to conflict of interest. So they all followed their own road to evolution with the main purpose to attract customers from one another. However due to globalization, multimodal transportation and the realization that combining forces they would all be part of a win – win situation, an alliance was formed between all transportation modes which eventually led to the greatest invention in logistics terms, the Hub Port. A hub port is where all the facilities needed and all the transportation modes are located so as to help one another and work around each other. In such way that there is correspondence from all possible means so the cargo can be delivered efficiently and in time to its destination. Such examples are the hub ports in Amsterdam, in Shanghai, in Viena and all over the world.

Railways

3.1. Railway history

The first evidence of railways dates back as far as 600 B.C. located at Diolkos and was a 6 kilometers wagon way which transported boats across the Corinth isthmus in Greece. Slaves pushed tracks that ran in grooves in limestone which prevented the...
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