Radio Programme Techniques

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An
Overview of Production Principles and Techniques

TOWARDS EFFECTIVE RADIO PROGRAMME DELIVERY:

Oba Abdulkadir LA’ARO
(B.sc, M.sc Mass Comm. Unilag, PGDE NTI)
Department of Mass Communication
University of Ilorin.

Presented at
Radio Kwara Programming Conference held between 15th --19th June 2009, Mandate Hall Radio Kwara, Ilorin.

Introduction.
Radio Stations like all other Mass Media Organisations, have one means through which they manifest the plans and agenda the station articulated for the audience. That means is the message, which can be conceived as an instrument. An instrument is a powerful tool in the hands of the wielder. That perhaps may explain the rationale for the regime of regulations foisted on the broadcast industry all over the world, of which the print media are relatively exempted. Message is the central element in any communication experience. It is what connects the receiver and the sender: it is the essence of the communication engagement. Uyo,(1989) underscores the central role of message when he averred that “message is invariable the central element in mass communication. Every other element of the process of mass communication tends to revolve around it.’ Radio, like any broadcasting; is a continuous transmission of signals to audience. Functional wise radio serves information, education and entertainment as well as persuasive roles. These are packaged in different formats, largely referred to as programmes. Programme is a scheduled configuration of messages presented in a discernible shape, arrangement and style. It occupies a distinct broadcast hour, wears a distinct cap (title) with the opening and closing having distinct character. Radio messages, however, come in other configurations that are not programme. Because radio serves selling and marketing activities of varying interests and other service providers, several messages on radio are purely commercials. Also, members of the society seek to use radio for varieties of personal information that may interest members of the public. This is referred to as announcement. Other variant of messages that come on radio but cannot be categorized in any of the three genre mentioned above are Promos and what we have elsewhere referred to as “Rituals---this will include all the devises we adopted in the opening and closing of station. (See La’aro 2008).As students and practitioners of radio broadcasting, it is important to appreciate the difference between a message types; message format and message functions. Let me crave your indulgence in explaining the difference.

Message type refers to a group made up of individual radio activities that have strongly marked and readily defined similarities e.g. programme commercials and announcement. Message Format is, on the other hands, the arrangement, shape and style we have considered appropriate to present the message to our target audience eg. Drama, news, talks, interviews, magazine, jingles, musicals and any other format that ingenuity may avail us in future. Whereas Message function refers to the purpose we intend to achieve in the target audience. Uyo (1989) has captured these function (that have been variously articulated by other scholars over the years) with an apt acronym called PENIISE--persuasion, entertainment, news, information, interpretation, selling, and education. Any message type packaged in whatever format can serve one or more of these functions but there would be the overriding or primary functions it is oriented to achieve. Radio Kwara, to take familiar example, often assailed our consciousness with various musical jingles composed or performed by Pele. Its rhythm may provoke corresponding movement of the body; and we may even dance but the producer would not be fulfilled if all it does is all that; for the obvious intention of the message is certainly to either, dissuade, discourage, exhort or encourage the audience along certain...
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