Racial Discrimination Against African Americans in the U.S. Labor Market

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Racial Discrimination against African Americans in the U.S. Labor Market Josefina Anorga
Carlos Albizu University
Abstract
The following work deals with racial discrimination against African Americans in the workplace. Terms as racial discrimination, racism, race and African Americans are going to be defined to a greater understanding of these. It presents different types of discrimination at work, statistics of the African American population who works in the U.S., the way how it is changing over the years and the laws and entities that protect discrimination at the workforce. Racial Discrimination against African Americans in the Labor Market There are many ethnic and racial groups in the United States, such as Euro Americans, African Americans, Asian Americans, American Indians, Latin Americans, and others. Some of these groups have faced severe discrimination in social, political, educational, and economic opportunities. In our days, there are still large differences among these groups in areas like employment opportunities, income, education, criminal justice, voting and elections, health, and other fields. Because of this, many ways of unequal opportunities and discriminatory treatment persists in the United States in many ways, especially with African Americans. The term African Americans, also called Afro-Americans or Blacks, refers to residents or citizens of the United States who have African origins. It also describes a very diverse group of people in the American society. They may come from different ethnic backgrounds such as African, Caribbean, Central American or South American. According to Robert Hill in “The Strength of Black Families” African Americans have family characteristics such as strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptable family roles, high achievement orientation, and strong religious orientation (Harry, 1992; Hairston, 1983). Afro-Americans make up collective family structure and subjects like family and spirituality are very important for them. Although the number of African American Muslims has increased, their choice of religions tends to be Christianity (Harry, 1992). Even though the workplace is more diverse than ever and there is more consciousness of racial discrimination, African Americans, a racial-ethnic minority group in the United States, still have to face many discrimination problems. Many people in the U.S. have prejudices about African Americans describing them as inferior. “Research in social psychology suggests that categorizing individuals on the basis of salient, observable characteristics such as race, gender, age, and even patterns of dress and speech is inevitable, occurs automatically, and activates biases associated with these characteristics (Measuring Racial Discrimination, 2004). There are also many stereotypes that qualify them as poor, unemployed, unintelligent, uneducated, smelly, dirty, lazy, and also violent offenders. Discrimination means unequal treatment. To treat an individual or group of people differently based on their racial origins is called Racial Discrimination. It is also important to understand two terms that will be mentioned throughout the project, and those are: race and racism. “The term race was used to distinguish populations in different areas on the basis of differing physical characteristics that had developed over time, such as skin color, facial features, and other characteristics” (Blank, Dabady, Citro, 2004), and “according to the US Civil Rights Commission 2010, racism is an action or attitude, conscious or unconscious, that subordinates and individual or group based on skin color or race. It can be enacted individually or institutionally”. The United States has been dominated in many aspects including the workplace since the colonial era by the predominant group, Euro-Americans or Whites. White men are twice as likely to get management jobs as qualified black men, and three times as likely as...
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