What are the contributions of Mahatma Gandhi in Education?
Historical Development of Basic Edcuation
Mahatma Gandhi explained the concept of Basic Education through a series of articles in his Harijan magazine in 1937. In the conference at Wardha after a detailed discussion about Gandhiji's articles the scheme of Basic Education took shape under the leadership of Dr. Zakir Hussain. The following four resolutions were passed.
(i) Free and compulsory education should be given to all children for a period of seven years.
(ii) The medium of instruction should be the mother tongue,
(iii) The process of education should be centred round some form of manual production work in the shape of a craft.
(iv) This education should be self-supporting to some extent.
The Central Advisory Board of Education set up a Committee under the Chairmanship of Sri B. G. Kher to suggest measures for implementing these resolutions. Then another Committee was appointed under the same Chairman to recommend action coordinating the Basic Education with higher education.
The recommendations of both these Committees were approved by the CABE and included in the Report on Post-war Educational Development in India. In 1944, although Govts, both at the national and state levels accepted Basic Education as the national pattern, progress in its implementation was not satisfactory.
Merits of Basic Education
(1) Work as a central place:
Since work occupies a central place in life, it had an important place in Basic Education. Dignity of labour was emphasized by him and work was made an integral part of this education.
(2) A new method of teaching:
Through Basic Education Gandhiji introduced a new method of teaching. This method is to teach all subjects through crafts and taken as activity-centred meant to free children from tyranny of words and cramming.
(3) Self-supporting education:
As a corollary to craft-centred education, it was...
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