“Is deciding what is RIGHT and doing it”
ETHICS is equated with:
* Good Governance: It requires us to decide what is good. * Public Service Ethics: Requires us to give quality service to the public. * Standards, Rules, Morals - ETHICS is the “science of human duty”.
ETHICS OF GOVERNANCE
Good Governance is characterized with:
* Poverty Alleviation
(According to UNDP as cited by Cariño)
* Rule of Law
* Consensus Orientation
* Effectiveness and Efficiency
RULES as an Ethical Basis
- We believe in them as coming by divine revelation.
- With authority or of our community.
The utilitarian principle focuses our attention on results or the consequences of our actions. It has been expressed traditionally as “Seeking the Greatest Good for the Greatest Number”
RELATIONSHIPS as an Ethical Basis
Confucius’ “Golden Rule” of caring: “Do not do to others what you would not have them do to you”. Jesus Christ’s expression of LOVE: “In everything, do to others as you would have them do to you”.
TRADITION as an Ethical Basis
Traditional Ethics – the ethics of earlier generations that is based on tradition. It is right to act in certain way because that is what it has always been done.
RULES as an Ethical Basis
* Section 1, Article XI, 1987 Constitution – Public Office is a Public Trust. Public Officials and employees must at all times serve the people with utmost responsibility, integrity, loyalty and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice, and lead modest lives.” * Section 28, Article II, 1987 Constitution – The State shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public service and take positive and effective measures against graft and corruption.
“Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act”
Enacted in 1861
Graft is defined as
“the acquisition of gain or advantage by dishonest, unfair or sordid means, especially through the use of one’s position or influence in politics, business, etc.” (People vs. Bernales, September 3, 1968)
Graft and corruption is an act or omission involving breach of the rules of decency, honesty and efficiency, for the purpose of obtaining undue advantage at the expense of the government-owned resources. In our legal system, graft and corruption is basically a crime. BALDRIAS, Napoleon S. “The Legal Implications of Graft and Corruption”
Corruption is “an act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. It includes bribery, but it is more comprehensive, because an act may be corruptly done through the advantage to be delivered from it be not offered by another.” (Magallanes vs. Provincial Board, 66 O.G. 7839)
Corruption is the perversion or destruction of integrity of fidelity in discharging public duties and responsibilities by bribery or favor. It entails the use of public power for private advantage in ways which transgresses some formal rule of law. (Tendero)
“Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees” signed into law by
then President Corazon C. Aquino
on February 20, 1989
Rule X. Grounds For Administrative Disciplinary Action
Directly or indirectly having financial and material interest in any transaction requiring the approval of his office. Owning, controlling, managing or accepting employment as officer, employee, consultant, counsel, broker, agent, trustee, or nominee in any private enterprise regulated, supervised or licensed by his office, unless expressly allowed by law.
Engaging in the private practice of his profession unless authorized by the...